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Added dungeons. The chests may contain gunpowder, strings, wheat, bread, iron ingots, buckets, saddles, and rarely, golden apples. Added redstone dust to dungeon chests , sometime between its introduction in Alpha v1. Added the newly introduced 13 and cat music discs to dungeon chests.
Added cocoa beans to dungeon chests. Breaking the spawner of a dungeon now gives experience. Added enchanted books to dungeon chests. Added horse armor to dungeon chests and removed cocoa beans. Probabilities have now also been adjusted. Changes in cavern generation now make dungeons considerably rarer. The chances of music discs in dungeon chests have been reduced.
Added bones , coal , rotten flesh , enchanted golden apples , and melons , pumpkins and beetroot seeds to dungeon chests. The average yield of music discs in dungeon chests has been increased. The average yield of enchanted books , gunpowder and string in dungeon chests have been doubled. A In the amphibolite, molybdenite occurs as folded, foliaform veinlets; B In the migmatite, molybdenite is coarse-grained and eu-hedral; C Thin section photomicrograph RL showing xenocrystic, deformed molybdenite with-in partial melted amphibolite; D Thin section photomicrograph RL of deformed molybdenite within diatexite migmatite; E-F Euhedral molybdenite intergrown with net-textured copper sul-phides in the diatexite migmatite; G SEM microphotograph showing both xenocrystic and eu-hedral molybdenite grains in the partial melted amphibolite; H SEM microphotograph of the xenocrystic molybdenite grains in amphibolite.
Isocon alteration geochemical plot of the metamorphic rocks after Grant et. A Isocon diagram illustrating major element oxide enrichment and depletion; B Isocon diagram illustrating metal enrichment and depletion. Series of thin section photomicrographs PPL showing the development of potas-sic alteration and the textural changes of alteration biotite left to right as it undergoes recrys-tallization in the metamorphic units.
A Undeformed, augite gabbro; B Undeformed, horn-blende porphyroblastic amphibolite also without the presence of primary igneous or alteration biotite; C Slightly foliated, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite with anhedral alteration biotite; D Amphibolite with anhedral, alteration biotite; E Foliated amphibolite with local, recrystallized biotite grains, but generally still dominated by anhedral alteration biotite grains; F Strongly foliated amphibolite with recrystallized biotite grains that appear to be primary igneous biotite.
Late stage hydrothermal alteration within the metamorphic and intrusive rocks. A Sericite-epidote alteration in the amphibolite, thin section photomicrograph XPL ; B Hematite staining of plagioclase grains in monzodiorite with late cross-cutting carbonate vein; C Pervasive quartz-hematite alteration within the quartz monzodiorite with late cross-cutting carbonate vein; D Pervasive quartz-hematite alteration with late cross-cutting carbonate vein.
Note native copper within the late carbonate vein. Paragenetic sequence of hydrothermal alteration. The width of the lines denote rela-tive abundance of minerals. Schematic representation of the Carmacks Copper deposit genesis. A Tectonic en-vironment of the Carmacks Copper deposit in the Late Triassic Lewes River arc; B Undeformed subvolcanic mafic intrusions and associated volcanic rocks become mineralized in the Late Tri-assic prior to metamorphism and deformation; C Regional ductile deformation and associated upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Late Norian modify these lithologies to amphib-olite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and deforms copper sulphides to foliaform stringers; D The oldest phase of the Granite Mountain batholith intrudes in the Late Hettangian; E The intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith causes partial melting in the quartz-plagioclase-bio-tite schist and remobilization of existing copper sulphides.
Migmatite and associated net-textured copper sulphides form; F-G Magmatism continues until the Sinemurian; H Subsequent ductile deformation event post-dates the intrusion of the latest phase of the GMB; I-J The deposit is near surface by Middle Jurassic that leads to the development of extensive of oxide cover; K The Late Cretaceous Carmacks Group is deposited on the top of the oxide cover. Tectonic evolution of Stikinia in the Carmacks Copper area. A Late Triassic tectonic setting of the Carmacks Copper area.
The Lewes River arc lies west from the Yukon-Tanana ter-rane. This amalgamation causes ductile deformation and amphi-bolite facies metamorphism in both terranes. As a result of crustal thickening, rocks of Stikinia is imbricated, folded, and buried to greater than 15 km of depths; C Extension exhumes Yukon-Ta-nana and the Carmacks Copper area. All thrust boundaries are re-activitated during extension.
Slab break-off, delimination drives magmatism. Syn-tectonic emplacement of the batho-lith causes partial melting in the metamorphic host rocks and remobilization of copper sulphides. Firstly, I would like to thank my supervisors, Dr. Alex Zagorevski, and Dr. Craig Hart, who placed their confidence in me and helped me to complete this project. I owe special thanks to all of them for their endless support, engaging discussions, and ex-citement concerning all components of the research. Their guidance has significantly improved the quality of this thesis.
I would like to thank Dr. James Mortensen for the valuable and stimulating discussions regarding this research. I sincerely thank Dr. Maurice Colpron from the Yukon Geological Survey who introduced me to Yukon regional geology and tectonics and has provided me advice and encouragement since I started geology. The Yukon Geological Survey and the Society of Economic Geologists are thanked for awarding me a student research grant.
Many thanks to the staff of The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research for their assistance producing many of the analytical data. I owe special thanks to Stephen Bartlett who agreed to be my field assistant twice and made the completion of my field work memorable with lively discussions, a positive attitude, and hard work.
I would like to thank Esther Bordet for her helpful discussions about regional geology and for providing me geochemical data of the Povoas Formation. I am grateful for the long discussions about thesis life and the time I spent with Kathryn MacWilliam at geology conferences - Yukon Geoscience Forum would have not been the same without her.
I am indebted to Venessa Bennett for her friendship, support, and effort to assist my prog-ress. I could not imagine my MSc experience and Vancouver life without any of you. Thank you for everything. I will always be grateful for my best friend Govershat Kor for her friendship and end-less encouragement since day one back in Newfoundland.
Lastly, I am so lucky and forever grateful to have amazing parents Anya and Apa , whose love and support are endless. I could not have not succeeded this journey without each of you, thank you. Early Mesozoic arcs are preserved in the Quesnellia and Stikinia terranes, which with the intervening belt of oce-anic Cache Creek terrane constitute the Intermontane terranes. The research presented in this thesis provides new insights into several fun-damental post-ore modification processes associated with the evolution of copper-gold deposits in the northern Canadian Cordillera.
It is suggested that these deposits form the northern extension of Cu-Au porphyry mineralization in British Columbia Logan and Mihalynuk, However, the link of these deformed and metamorphosed copper deposits to the porphyry environment has yet to be demonstrated.
Integration of these datasets constrains the nature of the Carmacks Copper deposit, which contrib-utes to a greater understanding of Late Triassic and Early Jurassic magmatism and metallogeny in the Yukon, and will serve as a model for comparison with arc-related ore systems overprinted by metamorphism and deformation elsewhere globally.
The eastern part of the orogen contains the autochthonous and parautochthonous rocks of Ancestral North America, whereas the western part comprises allochthonous terranes that show internal geological consistency but differ from the rock assemblages of the adjacent terranes Monger et al.
The northern Canadian Cordillera consists of four large tectonic realms: 1. The Laurentian realm includes the ancestral North American cratonic basement and overlying Paleoproterozoic to Triassic successions; 2. Allochthonous terranes of the peri-Laurentian realm Intermontane ter-ranes represent rifted continental margins, arcs, and ocean basins of northwest Laurentian prove-nance; 3.
Arctic and NE Pacific realms N. Alaska and Insular terranes comprise group of crustal fragments that originated between Laurentia and Siberia; and 4. Coastal realm includes Mesozoic 3to Cenozoic accretionary prisms and seamounts that developed along an active Pacific plate mar-gin Nelson and Colpron, ; Nelson et al. West-central Yukon is dominated by the peri-Laurentian realm. These terranes were originally bounded on their outboard oceanward margin by accre-tionary complexes of the Cache Creek and Bridge River terranes including high pressure meta-morphic rocks, carbonate platforms, and oceanic plateaus that originated far out in the ancestral Pacific Ocean Nelson and Colpron, The Yukon-Tanana, Quesnel, and Stikine terranes are thought to be derived from the western Laurentian margin, and were separated from the western Laurentian margin by opening of the Late Devonian to Permian Slide Mountain ocean Nelson and Colpron, After this closure, renewed subduction beneath Stikinia caused voluminous calc-alkaline magma-tism from ca.
The Carmacks Copper area is located at the most northern, apical junction of Yukon-Ta-nana and Stikine terranes Figure 1. This area is intruded by the Late Triassic — to Early Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons.
The nature of contact between the Yukon-Tanana and Stikinia terranes and the basement to these plutons remain unknown. Shallow-marine to fluvial interbedded sandstone, mudstone and conglom-erate with minor limestone Tanglefoot Fm. These plutons form the northern extension of plutonic belts and related arc magmatism of Stikinia and Quesnellia in British Columbia. The Carmacks Copper deposit is hosted within variably deformed and meta-morphosed rocks that are engulfed by the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith Figure 1.
The eastern flank of the Granite Mountain batholith comprises rocks of the Minto suite, whereas the western flank is composed of distinctly younger rocks of the Long Lake suite Colpron et al. Regionally, the Long Lake suite ca.
The Minto suite ca. The Granite Mountain batholith is unconformably overlain by mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Carmacks Group — a thick, sheet-like succession that covered much of Yukon southwest of the Tintina fault Tempelman-Kluit, Locally, dacite dikes inferred to be coeval with Late Cretaceous volcanism cut the Granite Mountain batholith Tempelman-Kluit, Dawson in at the Hoocheekoo bluffs along the Yukon River.
The subsequent discovery of the Casino Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit in spurred exploration in the Carmacks area, leading to the discovery of surface mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit in by J. Grant Abbott during reconnaissance prospecting and geochemical sampling for Archer, Cathro and Associates Ltd. Abbott, The deposit was the subject of intermittent exploration from the s to mids.
Exploration was renewed in and , during the initiation of this research. Extensive trenching and diamond drilling at Minto resulted in the discovery of additional mineralized zones from the s to the early s.
Development of the project began in the next year, and the first copper-gold concentrates were produced at the Minto mine by The lack of good bedrock exposure, obliteration of original fabrics and mineralogy due to ductile deformation and metamorphism, and extensive oxide cover imposed challenges to interpreting deposit genesis, and as a result, in-terpretations have been controversial. Analogies were made to the porphyry copper model, although it was not-ed that the lack of intense hydrothermal alteration was not typical of porphyry deposits Abbott, Al Archer in Sinclair, ; pers.
In contrast, Kirkham proposed that the mineralization may represent a metamorphosed stratiform red-bed copper deposit. Sinclair suggested that the mineralized zones at both Minto and Carmacks Copper deposits represent poor-ly digested, migmatitic sedimentary or volcanic rocks.
He suggested that mineralized zones are pre-metamorphic and that the scarcity of alteration suggests remobilization of sulphides during, or subsequent to migmatization Sinclair, Tafti and Mortensen provided the first geochronological constraints and geochemical characterization of the Carmacks Copper Williams Creek and Minto deposits, and concluded that mineralization, deformation, magmatism, and ex-humation took place within a narrow time interval in the Early Jurassic Tafti, The range of genetic interpretations for the Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits emphasize the difficulty in interpreting the protolith and ore-forming environment.
This research has broader implications for the tectonic evolu-tion of the area, metallogeny of the Minto Copper belt, and for mineral prospectivity associated with Late Triassic to Jurassic plutonic rocks in Yukon. The three core objectives of this thesis are:1 To produce datasets that constrain the age of mineralization and host rocks, the lithol-ogy of mineralized host rocks, and the timing and conditions of post-ore modification processes. Chapter 1 introduces the geological setting, history, and previous research done on the deposit.
Field and analytical data sets, major conclusions, and discussions are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 4 summarizes the conclusions of this study and discusses future exploration implications. Geochemistry and petrography are used to characterize the metamorphic rocks, with particular attention paid to relict textures and trace element geochemistry to resolve the protolith s of the metamorphic rocks. Laser ablation induc-tively coupled mass spectrometry LA-ICP-MS was utilized to determine the age of metamorphic rocks and to constrain the relative timing of metamorphism and pluton emplacement.
Integration of absolute ages derived from conventional chemical abrasion isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry CA-ID-TIMS of the igneous rocks with field observations, geochemistry, and petrography, provides the necessary constraints on different igneous phases and constructs the sequence of magmatic events.
This chapter serves as a detailed overview of the geology and field relationships, and it establishes the absolute ages of major deformational and magmatic events. The chapter also provides interpretation for the tectonic evolution of the area, relevant for the interaction between Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana and Cordilleran tectonics.
The chapter examines the metamorphic processes that account for the syn- and post-mineral modification of the hypogene ore. The isocon analysis is a quantitative way of evaluating chemical gains and losses in mass transfer related to metasomatic alteration and it is used to aid petrography to detect hydrothermal alteration that may have affected protoliths of the metamorphic rocks. Ti-in-zircon and zircon saturation thermometry is utilized to constrain the temperature of sulphide and silicate anatexis.
Inte-gration of this dataset with the timing of magmatism and deformation constructed in Chapter 2 forms the framework for ore paragenesis. The chapter concludes with a proposed deposit model for the Carmacks Copper deposit and aims to integrate its genesis with the Minto deposit, farther north in the Minto Copper belt. Chapter 4 summarizes the main contributions and conclusions of this research with regard to the current understanding of Late Triassic to - Early Jurassic magmatism, tectonism, and metal-logeny in the Yukon, and suggests where future work will enhance and build on the major findings of this study.
These terranes developed in the northeastern Pacific peri-Lauretian realm Nelson et al. The Late Triassic to Earliest Jurassic is one of the most interesting geological periods in the tectonic history of Stikinia, during which profound reorganization of Mesozoic ter-ranes took place. This period is associated with a change of character of arc magmatism, emplace-ment of alkalic Cu-Au porphyry deposits Logan and Mihalynuk, , regional deformation and exhumation, and the initiation of regionally extensive Jurassic forearc basins beneath contiguous arc terranes of Stikinia and Quesnellia.
The most northern part of Stikinia is surrounded by the Yukon-Tanana terrane, defining a clothes pin-shaped closure in map view Figure 2. This distribution of terranes has generat-ed several geodynamic hypotheses and it is still under debate. Ideas generally split between the oroclinal enclosure Mihalynuk et al.
The oroclinal enclosure models Quesnellia and Stikinia as adjacent arcs joined through the Yukon-Tanana terrane in the hinge zone. The distribution of terranes is explained by the anticlock-wise rotation of Stikinia, resulting in the oroclinal enclosure of the exotic Cache Creek terrane Mihalynuk et al. The escape hypothesis presents Stikinia and Quesnellia as continuous arc along the continental margin of Laurentia and invokes the indenter-type model for the arrival of Wrangellia that caused the tectonic removal and northward transition of Stikinia via strike-slip faulting in the early Middle Jurassic Wernicke and Klepacki, In British Columbia, the deep-est and thus oldest exposures of the Stikine terrane and its contact with the Yukon-Tanana terrane are obscured by the Cretaceous to Eocene magmatism of the Coast Mountains Nelson, The Carmacks Copper area in central Yukon is characterized by deformed metamorphic inliers of unknown origin within the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith, which separates Stikinia to the east from Yukon-Tanana terrane to the west.
Here we present petrographic descrip-tions, whole-rock geochemistry, and U-Pb zircon age for the metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Carmacks Copper area as evidence that indicates that the metamorphic rocks are part of the Late Triassic volcano-plutonic sequences of Stikinia and represent that deepest exposure of the terrane in the area.
We discuss and compare the metamorphic and deformation history with the Yukon-Tanana terrane and place these rocks in the context of Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Canadian Cordillera. Figure 2 1 Regional geological map of central Yukon, Canada after Colpron et al.
The Snowcap assemblage is overlain and intruded by a sequence of Devonian to Permian magmat-ic arcs, which include the Devono-Mississippian Finlayson assemblage and the Permian Klondike assemblage Mortensen, ; Colpron et al. Most of the terrane is metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies and it experienced ductile deformation in the early Mississippi-an, Permian, Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Cretaceous Mortensen, ; Dusel-Bacon et al.
Emplacement of the Juras-sic plutonic suites was partly coeval with the deposition of the Laberge Group, an Early to Middle Jurassic sedimentary forearc basin Colpron et al. The Laberge Group was predominantly derived from Late Triassic Stikinia and is dominated by volcanic and plutonic sources Hart, ; Colpron et al.
The Carmacks Copper area is located near the boundary between Stikinia and the western prong of Yukon-Tanana terrane Figure 2. Southwest of the study area, in the Aishihik Lake region, the Yukon-Tanana terrane is characterized by amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the Early Paleozoic Snowcap assemblage locally interlayered with the Mississippian orthogneiss 17of the Simpson Range plutonic suite.
These rocks preserve widespread evidence of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic mid-crustal deformation and associated regional amphibolite facies metamorphism Colpron et al. East of the batholith, the Povoas Formation forms an extensive northwest trending belt and con-sists of variably deformed and metamorphosed greenschist and amphibolite facies, augite phyric basalt, volcaniclastic rocks, and hornblende gabbro Hart and Radloff, The Granite Moun-tain batholith comprises an eastern Minto phase, which is in probable fault contact with a western Long Lake phase Colpron et al.
The Minto suite ranges from quartz monzo-diorite to tonalite, whereas the younger Long Lake suite consists of medium-grained, equigranular granodiorite, porphyritic granodiorite, and porphyritic granite to quartz monzonite phases Joyce, The Granite Mountain batholith intrudes variably deformed and upper amphibolite facies metamorphic mafic rocks of unknown protolith see discussion in Chapter 2. The metamorphic rocks preserve evidence of polyphase deformation that in part predate the emplacement of the massive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith.
Understanding the origin and age of protoliths and superimposed deformation thus have an important bearing on the pre-Jurassic deformation history of the region and the nature of contact between the Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana terranes. Felsic plutonic rocks of the batholith intrude the Late Triassic Povoas Formation to the east, where it is bounded by the normal, dextral oblique-slip Hoochekoo fault and an unnamed, normal fault.
The contact is not exposed. Outcrops of unminer-alized, slightly foliated augite gabbro of the Povoas Formation are located 5 kilometres east of the Carmacks Copper deposit, near the Yukon River Figure 2. Metamorphic inliers in the Carmacks Copper area consist of an interlayered amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist Figure 2. Foliated amphibolite is texturally tran-sitional with a variant of the amphibolite that is variably deformed and hornblende porphyroblas-tic.
Undeformed augite gabbro is locally present, but rare in the area. Migmatitic rocks that are compositionally similar to the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist are preferentially developed along the eastern side of the largest 3 km-long, and 20 to m-wide metamorphic inlier. Hypogene copper mineralization is hosted by the metamorphic rocks including the migmatite and pre-dates the intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith Chapter 3. Dikes of aplite, quartz monzonite, and pegmatite LTrEJM3 cross-cut the above described lithologies, and are themselves locally affected by a late stage of folding and boudinage Figure 2.
Plagioclase is fine-grained 0. Augite is medium-grained 0. Hornblende is medium-grained 0. Accessory minerals include apatite, zircon, titanite, and ilmenite. Rocks in which augite has been completely replaced by hornblende are termed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite Figure 2. Hornblende has a bimodal size distribution and occurs both as medium-grained 1. Hornblende typically forms oikocrysts with respect to plagioclase and epidote Figure 2.
Where amphibolite is foliated, hornblende porphyroblasts are deformed along foliation Figure 2. Biotite is fine-grained 0. Accessory minerals include titanite and zircon. Plagioclase is typically medium-grained 0. Foliation is defined by hornblende and biotite. Hornblende pseudomorphs after augite are also common. Biotite forms subhedral to tabular grains commonly mantling hornblende. Where present, quartz is fine-grained 0. Accessory minerals include fine-grained zircon, apatite, and titanite Figure 2.
The unit is locally tightly to isoclinally folded, with folds being increasingly disharmonic near intrusive contacts Figure 2. Plagioclase occurs as medium 0. Quartz forms fine 0. Biotite has a bimodal size distribution, with medium grains 0. Accessory minerals include apatite and zircon Figure 2.
The neosome Sawyer, Figure 2. The majority of the feldspar in the migmatite is albite that forms medium 1. The albite grains are commonly surrounded by fine 0. Hornblende is medium-grained 1. Fine-grained, cuspate-lobate-shaped hornblende 0.
Thin layers of myrmekite locally occur at the boundary of quartz and albite. Clinopyroxene is medium-grained Epidote occurs at the interface between the albite and copper sul-phide grains, forming a narrow, 0. Accessory minerals include apatite, titanite, and epidote.
These metamorphic condi-tions overprint the early D1 deformation and associated upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. A Slightly partial melted, massive augite gabbro. White dashed circle indicates hornblende porphyroblast pseudomorphing augite; D Deformed hornblende porphyroblastic am-phibolite; E Foliated, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite.
Deformed hornblende porphyro-blasts along S1 foliation are outlined by white dashed lines. Quartz monzonite, granite pegmatite, and aplite dikes that cross-cut all units described above are grouped as LTrEJM3. The local folding and boudinage of these dikes is the evidence of a sub-sequent phase of ductile deformation.
These rocks are generally medium-grained and undeformed. A plagioclase porphy-ritic phase cm is commonly gradational with respect to the non-porphyritic phase Figure 2. Both K-feldspar and plagioclase occur as medium mm , anhedral grains with consertal grain boundaries. Most feldspar grains exhibit undulose extinction. Finer-grained feldspar crystals are common around larger grains and suggest recrystal-lization and deformation.
Fine-grained, anhedral quartz is interstitial with respect to plagioclase and K-feldspar. Apatite and titanite are the main accessory minerals Figure 2. The western phase LTrEJM2 is divided into two distinct lithological groups based on mineralogical differences. K-feldspar phenocrysts range in length from mm, and are generally randomly oriented, although a weak to moderate tectonic foliation is locally present near the contact with the metamorphic inliers.
Myrmekitic intergrowths of quartz and feldspar are extensively developed along quartz-plagioclase grain boundaries. The mafic phase includes both biotite 0. Horn-blende is anhedral, locally poikiolitic, with quartz and epidote chadacrysts. Some of the larger grains also exhibit deformation twinning and undulose extinction. Anhedral, lenticular epidote, and titanite are the main accessory minerals Figure 2. The LTrEJM3 intrusive phase includes folded and boudinaged dikes of quartz monzonite, granite pegmatite, and aplite.
The dikes are commonly metres in width, strongly deformed, and typically occur within the metamorphic inliers as cross-cutting dikes. The quartz monzonite dikes are texturally and compositionally similar to the western phase LTrEJM2B and probably form part of the later pulse of magmatism. Plagioclase and K-feldspar form subhedral, coarse grains 2. Half-corona textures of K-feldspar on pla-gioclase locally occurs. Microperthitic intergrowth is common and it is mainly exposed on the albite twinned plagioclase grains.
Quartz is fine-grained 0. In a few places, micrographic intergrowth of plagioclase and quartz occurs near the grain boundaries. Bio-tite is subhedral, medium-grained 0. Aplite dikes are less common and characteristically light pink coloured, fine-grained, sug-ary textured, and lack mafic minerals.
Granitic pegmatite is massive and commonly leucocratic, although 1 to 2 cm-long bio-tite crystals are locally present. The D1 event is characterized by the development of a NNW-trending and steeply dipping foliation S1 at upper amphibolite facies Figure 2.
The S1 fabric is a continuous foliation defined by hornblende and biotite and it occurs as spaced foliation in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist, defined by leucocratic and melanocratic domains, which are lo-cally recrystallized to a granoblastic texture. In mineralized rocks, S1 is in part defined by elongate blebs of copper sulphides that are parallel to the S1 foliation Figure 2.
D2 is predominantly characterized by transposition of S1, local development of crenula-tion cleavage S2 , as well as disharmonic and rootless F2 folds Figure 2. D2 structures are the best developed in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and migmatite. Leucosome within the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is commonly folded by disharmonic F2 folds. The F2 folds are generally not associated with an axial planar S2 fabric, but are defined by local tight refolding of S1 foliation and compositional layering.
Syn-tectonic emplacement of the Granite Moun-tain batholith is supported by mesoscopic folding of aplite, pegmatite and quartz monzonite LTrE-JM3 dikes within the metamorphic inliers. These LTrEJM3 dikes occur as foliation parallel, locally dismembered boudins m wide along fold limbs or as rootless fold hinges with wavelength up to 7 metres Figure 2. Northwest-trending, steeply dipping F2 axial planar fabric locally appears to be cross-cut by the rootless granitoid bodies in fold hinges; however, this fabric is actually deflected along the rheologically stronger granitoid bodies Figure 2.
Several late, E-W-trending brittle faults cut all previously described rock units and structur-al elements. These faults occur as prominent non-magnetic discontinuities in total magnetic field data. The location of field photographs and thin section photomicrographs are marked on the cross-sections.
A Thin section photomicrograph XPL showing penetrative foliation in the amphibolite by the alignment of hornblende grains; B Thin section photograph RL showing the alignment of foliaform cop-per sulphides in the amphibolite. The lo-cation of field photographs and thin section photomicrographs are marked on the cross-sections.
C Crenulation cleavage in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist, Discovery outcrop; D Dishar-monic rootles, leucosome F2 folds also in quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist, Discovery outcrop; E Alignment and deformation of K-feldspar megacrysts in the western phase; F Dismembered and folded quartz monzonite dike LTrEJM3 , trench TR The location of field photo-graphs and thin section photo-micrographs are marked on the cross-sections.
G Folded and boudined quartz monzodiorite, Discovery ourcrop; H Granitoid fold hinge with axial planar cleavage. Note the locally boudined and dismem-bered parts in the centre of the photograph. Blue circles are measured fold axes. Plutonic rocks were classified on the basis of their quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclase QAP compositions Le Bas and Streckeisen, , as determined from modal analysis of digital scans of cobaltinitrite and amaranth red stained slabs, using ImageJ software plagioclase stained red; K-feldspar stained yellow.
Samples were mainly collected from diamond drill core for this meth-od Appendix C. The LTrEJM2B group ranges compositionally from tonalite to 38quartz diorite and is K-feldspar phenocryst absent, but the quartz phenocrysts are large and up to cm in length Figure 2. These rocks range from diorite to monzodiorite in composition and are generally finer-grained relative to the western phase Figure 2. Yellow colours on stained slabs correspond to K-feldspar, whereas red colours correspond to plagioclase.
Unstained, milky white grains are quartz. The total alkalis versus silica discrimi-nation diagram of Irvine and Baragar reveals that the western phase is subalkaline Figure 2. There is a wide range of subalkaline samples from high-K to low-K series Figure 2. All samples are typically peraluminous to weakly metaluminous Figure 2. This likely indicates that these dikes represent late, evolved melts related to the western phase. The tectonic discrimina-tion diagrams of Harris suggest a volcanic island arc, I-type granite affinity Whalen et al.
In contrast with the western phase, the eastern phase is alkaline, and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous Figure 2. The tectonic discrimination diagrams of Harris suggest compositions typical of a volcanic island arc, I-type granite Whalen et al.
A Alkaline versus subalkaline clas-sification Irvine and Baragar, ; B Subdivision of subalkalic rocks Rickwood, GHI 4 2 Metamorphic RocksTwenty-six metamorphic rock samples of the Carmacks Copper area were analyzed: au-gite gabbro, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, amphibolite, and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. The Carmacks Copper metamorphic rocks are divisible into two main groups based on SiO2 content.
On the Th versus Co diagram Hastie et al. The augite gabbro plots as basalt and shows slight variation within the calc-alkaline and island arc tholeiite fields Figure 2. The quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist displays the lowest Co values, corresponding to the most felsic composition. On the subdivision of subalkalic rocks, the samples range from medium-K calc-alkaline to sho-shonite field, with majority of the rocks plotting between the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series Figure 2.
Harker diagrams Figure 2. Overall, the augite gabbro, horn-blende porphyroblastic amphibolite, and amphibolite are more mafic, and less alkaline than the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist Rickwood, MORB-normalized trace element patterns show an overall enrichment in incompatible el-ements across all lithologies Pearce, Figure 2.
All rocks are characterized by high Sr, Rb, K, and Ba. Trace element variation patterns of the two main compositional groups vary enough to permit discrimination on this basis. In general, the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is charac-terized by lower HFSE concentrations than the amphibolite.
The exception to this are Hf and Zr, which are more enriched in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. The augite gabbro displays the lowest HREE concentrations, but also the widest range of concentrations. The quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist has systematically lower REE concentrations than the Group 1 lithologies. A strong negative Eu anomaly is distinctive in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and otherwise absent in all the other lithologies Figure 2. Tectonic discrimination using ternary diagrams of Th-Hf-Ta Wood, are consistent with calc-alkaline basalts for all lithologies.
Figure 2. On the V versus Ti discriminant plot of Shervais the samples span the fields of arc basalt to mid-ocean ridge basalts Figure 2. Based on the overall lithogeochemical character of the amphibolite and the quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist, these units are interpreted to be calc-alkaline basalts and andesites within the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series in a magmatic arc setting.
Ura-nium-lead and trace element analysis of zircon of a sample of quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist containing partial melt was carried out by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry LA-ICP-MS , in order to constrain the age of the protolith and the age of the par-tial melting overprint. This technique allowed for the spatial resolution of zircon chemistry and isotopic ratios within specific growth zones of zircon grains, with internal textural characteristics revealed by SEM-cathodoluminescence CL imaging.
Samples weighting approximately 5 kg were processed by standard jaw crushing and ceramic plate grinding techniques, and heavy mineral concentrates were obtained using the WilfleyTM table, heavy liquids methylene-iodide , and FrantzTM isodynamic magnetic separator, before hand-pick-ing the least magnetic fraction in ethanol with tweezers under a binocular microscope. CA-ID-TIMS: For the three igneous samples and one migmatite sample, approximately 70 zircon grains were handpicked, and seven of the clearest, fracture- and inclusion-free grains were selected.
These grains then were mounted in epoxy, polished, carbon-coated, CL-imaged, then carefully plucked from the grain mount and annealed in quartz glass crucibles at oC for 60 hours. U and Pb were chemically separated from other elements using ion exchange chromatography. Isotope ratios were measured on a modified single collector VGR or S thermal ionization mass spectrometer equipped with analog Daly photomulti-pliers. Analytical blanks are 0.
Linear regressions follow the method outlined in Isoplot Ludwig, Estimated uncertainties on the U decay constant are presented graphically in Concordia plots, and the decay constant used are those of Jaffey et al. Prior to analysis, the target grains were examined by CL imaging. Two standards, Plesovice Slama et al. During ablation, U and Pb isotopes and tracer solution signals were acquired in time-resolved peak-jumping, pulse-counting mode with one point measured per peak using PQVision software.
Isoplot v. The unit has a weak tectonic foliation close to the margins of the metamor-phic inlier. Back-scatter electron imaging revealed tight oscillatory zoning with local, commonly narrow, bright featureless domains overprinting the oscillatory zones. Grains 1, 5, and 6 display a bright, unzoned, homogeneous core. Grain 2 yields a concordant age of Grain 1 and 7 are slightly discordant with an age of Six grains fractions with U concentrations between and ppm give a Concordia age of Monzodiorite Eastern phase : Sample WC Sam-ple WC Back-scattered SEM images indicate an inter-nal structure of bright, well-defined cores to the zircons that are mantled by narrow oscillatory and local sector zoning.
Most grains had multiple cracks. Grains 2 and 5 are discordant and yield ages of Four grains with low to moderate U concentrations ppm yield a Concordia age of Some of the grains display irregular bright domains that overprint oscillatory zoning. Grains 2 and 3 with moderate U concentrations ppm are slightly discordant with an age of The weighted average age using fractions 1, 4, 5, and 6 is Reported age excludes older xenocrystic zircons.
Most zircon grains display irregular, featureless, wavy, bright to dull do-mains overprinting primary oscillatory zoning. Two fractions 1 and 5 with low U concentration ppm yield slightly older, but concordant ages of A Concordia age of Quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist: Sample CN Three zircon populations were defined based on distinct textural observations Figure 2.
These grains are prismatic, subhedral shaped, and have sharply defined, tight to moderate oscillatory zoning with local sector zoning and irregular cracks. Based on these dominant textures, these grains are interpreted as typical igneous zircons Hoskin and Schalteg-ger, It is important to note that none of these grains have recrystallized, irregular domains that are typical of metamorphic recrystallization Corfu et al. These grains are texturally distinctive from Group 1 zircons Figure 2.
Primary sector and oscillatory zoned grains are typically overprinted by blurred, convoluted zones that exhibit wavy, irregular boundaries and are interpreted to represent progressive stages of metamorphic recrystal-lization Hoskin and Schaltegger, Figure 2. Zircons from this group yield a The grains exhibit recrystallized, newly grown domains of homogenous composition. Many of the grains have a series of low-CL and high-CL sinuous zones with internally featureless lobate edge, commonly overgrown by a high-CL, homogenous rim, and then a narrow low-CL rim, interpreted as zones of Pb loss.
Because many of the analyses are of low U concentration ppm zircon except grain 26, ppm that cor-respond to recrystallized metamorphic domains dark CL areas , the isotopic age of these grains is interpreted to represent the timing of Pb loss due to dissolution-precipitation Appendix G, Figure A.
In summary, sample CN The oldest The third group with the youngest age population of E Relative probability histogram showing the age distribution of all three groups. One sample CN Sample CN All available thermochronometric data from the Carmacks Copper area are summarized in Figure 2. Previous studies interpreted that the metamorphic rocks in this area are deformed supracrustal rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane that underwent deformation and metamorphism in the Early Jurassic Tafti, Data presented in this study demonstrates that the protolith of the metamorphic rocks is Late Triassic in age that experienced Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic mid-crustal deformation, tectonic burial, and exhumation.
New interpretations are suggested for the tectonic evolution of the Carmacks Copper area, relevant for the interaction between Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana and Cordilleran tectonics. Hornblende porphyroblasts locally pseudomorph augite and are progressively deformed and attenuated in the amphibolite. Based on these obser-vations it is suggested that the augite gabbro is the protolith of the amphibolite.
Geochemical data supports these observations as the major and trace element signatures of the augite gabbro, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, and amphibolite are indistinguishable. They all plot as calc-alkaline basalts of volcanic arc origin within the high K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series.
The quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is interpreted as a calc-alkaline andesite of the same magma source. The Late Triassic Povoas Formation is in an unexposed contact with the Granite Moun-tain batholith, approximately 5 km east of the Carmacks Copper deposit. The Povoas Forma-tion is characterized by subalkaline tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts and basaltic andesites Hart and Radloff, ; Bordet, These volcanic rocks are in an intrusive contact with massive, coarse-grained augite phyric basalt, augite gabbro, and medium-grained hornblende gabbro and 71interpreted as consanguineous subvolcanic intrusions Hart et al.
The minimum age and deformation of the metamorphic rocks is constrained to be older than GMB phases i. The best age constraint on the protoliths of metamorphic rocks is the The presence of ca. The geochemistry of the Carmacks Copper metamorphic rocks is comparable to the volca-nic rocks of the Povoas Formation.
The Povoas Formation plots in the basalt to basaltic andesite field in the rock discrimination plot Figure 2. Samples from the Povoas Formation generally plot in the transitional area of volcanic arc tholeiite and calc-alkaline basalts, whereas rocks of the Carmacks Copper area are within the calc-alkaline field Figure 2. The geochemistry and similar trace and REE element patterns, suggest that the coeval rocks see previous of Car-macks Copper and Povoas Formation were likely derived from similar subduction-related mag-matic sources.
The inferred Late Triassic age of the metamorphic rocks indicates that they are coeval with the Povoas Formation of the Lewes River Group and Stikine plutonic suite. Based on the textural and geochemical similarity of the two units, it is concluded that the Carmacks Copper metamorphic rocks belong to the Povoas Formation and represent metamorphosed subvolcanic intrusions of the Lewes River arc.
The Stuhini Group is more extensive than the Lewes River Group and preserves a more complete record of temporal changes in the Late Triassic arc e. The majority of the Stuhini Group is characterized by calk-alkaline to shoshonitic mafic to inter-mediate coarse-augite porphyry and bladed feldspar porphyry volcanic flows, pyroclastic rocks and related sediments Mortimer, These rocks were emplaced from ca.
This generally homogeneous magmatism is interrupted by a period of silica-undersaturated alkaline magmatism at ca. The transition to alkaline magmatism in British Columbia is coeval with emplacement of the calc-alkaline to shoshonitic volcanic and plutonic rocks further north, indicating diachroneity in the nature of magmatism along strike in the Late Triassic arc sys-tem.
This geochemical change is likely related to diachronous plate reorganization along the Late Triassic arc, prior to emplacement of the voluminous Jurassic plutonic suites. The maximum age of this deformation is constrained ca. In general, the Late Triassic Stikinia is regarded to be characterised by normal arc magmatism Logan and Mihalynuk, ; however, there is sparse evidence for Late Triassic deformation in British Columbia.
This deformation thus follows the transition from calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism, and coincides with a brief cessation of arc magmatism, deposition of widespread reefal limestone Sinwa Formation in British Columbia, Hancock member in Yukon , initiation of exhumation of the Late Triassic plutonic rocks Mandana member in Yukon , and angular un-conformity prior to initiation of Hazelton Group magmatism and Laberge Group sedimentation Colpron et al.
In Yukon, Johnston and Erdmer interpreted that Yukon-Tanana terrane was underthrust beneath Stikinia, whereas Mortensen suggested that the contact between these two terranes is stratigraphic and rep-resents a continent-ocean transition.
In the study area, the Granite Mountain batholith obscures the stratigraphic and structural relationships between the Yukon-Tanana terrane and Stikinia. This indicates that the Granite Mountain batholith not only intrudes Yukon-Tanana, but also stitches the contact between Stikinia and Yu-kon-Tanana terrane. Deformation D2 and associated amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Yukon-Tanana is coeval with Late Triassic deformation D1 and amphibolite facies metamorphism observed in Sti-kinia rocks in the Carmacks Copper area.
Both terranes experienced regional tectonic burial in the earliest Jurassic to greater than 15 km Tafti, , followed by rapid exhumation. The similarity of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic deformation and metamorphism of the Stikine and Yukon-Tanana terranes suggests that they were only linked after ca. According to Hart and Radloff the shear zone experienced at least two phases of defor-mation, one in the Late Triassic that affected both Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana rocks.
The Bennett batholith, similarly to the Granite Mountain batholith represents the plutonic linkage between the two terranes because it intrudes the shear zone. In addition, they also suggested that mafic and ultramafic rocks within the shear zone represent the exhumed roots of the Lewes River arc, which were thrust over the volcanic rocks of the Lewes River Group Tizzard and Johnston, Further age constraints on the Bennett batholith yielded a The tectonic history of Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana, including contractional deformation, amphibolite facies metamorphism, tectonic burial, and exhumation in the latest Triassic to earliest Jurassic, is very similar.
Based on this evidence, we propose that these events reflect terrane amal-gamation of Stikinia to Yukon-Tanana. In addition, aluminium in-hornblende barometry of the Early Jurassic Minto suite of the GMB indicates mid-crustal emplacement, in contrast with the much younger Long Lake suite that showed significantly shallower emplacement pressures kilobars Tafti, ; Topham et al.
The regional significance of this exhumation is also indicated by thermobarometric data from amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. These rocks record dynamic burial to 7. The Willow Lake, crustal-scale extension fault on the northeast side of the YTT is suggested to have accommodated parts of this regional exhumation Knight et al. The deposition of the Mandana and Hancock members of the Whitehorse trough and Sinwa Formation of the Stuhini Group was coeval with Late Triassic deformation and resulting exhuma-tion Colpron et al.
These sedimentary rocks record the waning stages of the Lewes River and Stuhini arcs. By the Late Jurassic, magmatic activity had waned considerably, and crustal ex-humation of both metamorphic and plutonic rocks ceased. Sedimentation in the Whitehorse trough ended in the Middle Jurassic, as the overlying Upper Jurassic fluvial deposits of the Tantalus For-mation received airborne ash from the Late Jurassic—Early Cretaceous arc that developed atop the approaching Insular terranes Colpron et al.
Mafic metamorphic rocks exhibit a range of transitional textures that link massive augite gabbro to hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, to fine-grained and foliated amphibolite. This textural and geochemical evidence sup-ports the conclusion that the augite gabbro is the protolith of the amphibolite. The minimum age of the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is constrained to ca. The maximum age of metamorphism and ductile deformation of metamorphic rocks is constrained by the ca.
This event is expressed in northwest British Columbia as the regionally extensive latest Triassic to earliest Jurassic angular unconformity that places Early Jurassic Hazelton Group strata on strongly deformed Stuhini Group strata, signalling regional tectonic deformation of Stikinia.
Coeval Late Triassic contractional de-formation and tectonic burial km , followed by rapid exhumation in the Early Jurassic is also well-documented in the adjacent Yukon-Tanana terrane in Yukon, which was stitched to Sti-kinia by the Granite Mountain batholith in the Early Jurassic. Terrane collision is considered the likely cause of Late Triassic deformation recorded by metamorphic rocks in the Carmacks Copper area, and elsewhere in Stikinia and the Yukon-Tanana terrane. This event reflects significant crustal thickening as the Yukon-Tanana terrane and Stikinia were amalgamated in the Late Triassic.
Investigations of the effect of amphibolite facies meta-morphism on ore deposits such as komatiite-hosted Ni, volcanogenic massive sulphides, mafic-ul-tramafic intrusion-hosted Ni-Cu sulphides, and orogenic gold have extensively advanced mineral deposit models Barnes and Hill, ; Mancini and Papunen, ; Ridley et al.
In contrast, metamorphosed Cu-Au deposits have not received much research attention, most likely due to their scarcity in the geologic record, and the emphasis was generally placed on the tectonic deformation of ore deposit Richardson et al. Mineralization is hosted by variably deformed and metamorphosed host rocks that have been engulfed by the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith Abbott, These deposits were previously included with prolif-ic Mesozoic porphyry Cu-Au mineralization epoch in British Columbia Logan and Mihalynuk, , due to their spatial association with the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith; however, age and petrogenesis of the deposits are obscured by a strong metamorphic overprint.
This study focuses on the geological features that demonstrate the structural and meta-morphic modification of host rocks and ore at the Carmacks Copper deposit and discusses the metamorphic conditions responsible for these changes. We present petrographic observations, Ti-in-zircon, and Re-Os data, which constrain the timing of mineralization of the Carmacks Copper deposit with respect to magmatism see Chapter 2 and metamorphism. We demonstrate that emplacement of the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith resulted in the partial melting of Late Triassic mineralized host rocks.
During melting, copper sulphide minerals were re-precipitated in diatexite migmatite as net-textured domains. The presented geological model is applicable to other ore deposits in the Minto Copper belt, including the Minto deposit. In Yukon, correlative igneous rocks include the Stikine suite ca. Stikinia in Yukon is composed of volcanic and sedimentary rocks and local subvolcanic intrusions of the Upper Triassic Povoas Formation of the Lewes River Group Hart, The Povoas Formation in southern Yukon is characterized by variably deformed and greenschist to amphibolite facies augite porphyritic basalt, volcaniclastic rocks, and hornblende gabbro Hart and Radloff, The Granite Mountain batholith contains inliers of deformed and metamorphosed rocks that host Cu-Au-Ag mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit, Minto mine, and Stu prospect Figure 3.
These metamorphic rocks occur as elongate, north-northwest trending inliers within felsic plutonic rocks of the Minto suite phase of the GMB, and have been affected by a Late Triassic ductile deformation event D1 and associated upper amphibolite facies metamor-phism Figure 3. Compositionally similar, but texturally distinct migmatitic rocks are present along the strike of the metamorphic rocks and host significant sulphide Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Early Jurassic felsic plutonic rocks of the GMB intrude the metamorphic rocks, and thus post-date mineralization and D1 deformation Figure 3.
These plutonic rocks are dominantly undeformed, but locally exhibit weak tectonic foliation near their contacts with the metamorphic inliers. Folded and boudinaged dikes of the youngest intrusive phase of the GMB commonly cross-cut the metamorphic host rocks, which indicates that D2 deformation outlasted the emplacement and crystallization of the batholith during the Early Jurassic Figure 3.
Foliated amphibolite is texturally transitional into rarely exposed, massive, undeformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite Figure 3.
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