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The present study examined whether culture influences young children's ability to conceptualize and differentiate human beings from supernatural beings such as God in terms of life -cycle traits. Children did not anthropomorphize but differentiated among human and supernatural beings, attributing life -cycle traits to humans, but not to God.

Although 3-year-olds differentiated significantly among agents, 5-year-olds attributed correct life -cycle traits more consistently than younger children. The results also indicated some cross- cultural variation in these attributions. Implications for biological conceptual development are discussed. This paper is a cross- cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns.

While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross- cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

This article examines how and to what extent Luxembourg society was "exposed" to visual representations of the prospering steel industries and labour and working-class culture s from the s until the s --a period of massive industrialisation--and how it thus gradually "learned to labour".

Indeed, modern visual media were…. Analysis of slang terms that college students use to characterize peers at Holy Cross College Massachusetts and University of California, Davis suggests that undergraduate slang usage is socially complex, the language is reflective of campus and academic life , and that it portrays undergraduate life from the perspective of dominant student….

The main research question of this study was: How do student life offices at four diverse Catholic colleges and universities create an environment that is expressive of a Catholic way of life? This research question was operationalized by two research sub questions: How do senior student affairs officers, mid-level student affairs officers, and….

Correlates of life satisfaction among older people in China: an examination of two cultural variables. This article examines the relationships between the two cultural variables of having mianzi in social interactions and Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity and life satisfaction among older people in a coastal city in mainland China. The mediating effect of having mianzi in social interactions on the relationship between Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity and life satisfaction is also examined.

The study applies a non-probability sampling and adopts a face-to-face interview approach using a questionnaire composed of close-ended questions. A total of valid questionnaires are obtained. Multiple regression analysis is used to test the hypotheses. Findings indicate that the two cultural variables are associated significantly with life satisfaction, while controlling for socio-demographic variables.

The variable of Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity is also indirectly associated with life satisfaction through its effect on having mianzi in social interactions. Older people with higher endorsement of positive Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity and higher degree of having mianzi in social interactions tend to have higher life satisfaction. Professionals working with older people should be sensitive to cultural variables that exert impacts on older people's life satisfaction.

A cultural perspective on emotional experiences across the life span. Past research suggests that older adults place a greater priority on goals of maintaining positive experiences and distancing from negative experiences. We hypothesized that these aging-related differences in emotional experiences are more pronounced in Western cultures that encourage linear approaches to well-being compared with Eastern cultures that encourage more dialectic approaches to well-being.

We compared reports of positive and negative emotional experiences from random samples of Americans a culture characterized by focus on positive and distancing from negative experiences and Japanese a culture characterized by its endorsement of dialectical experiences.

In support of our hypothesis, older Americans reported significantly less negative emotions in unpleasant situations, relative to their younger counterparts. Furthermore, both trait-level negativity i. In contrast, such aging-related effects were absent in the Japanese respondents. Even though older and younger Japanese reported the same amount of negative emotions in unpleasant situations, older Japanese also reported more positive emotions in the same unpleasant situations.

Together, these findings highlight the role of culture for understanding how emotional experiences unfold across adulthood. HRD can have a humanistic impact on organizations through influence on the values embedded in the organization culture. One approach is through work- life policies and programs, which have become synonymous with humane, employee-friendly organizations.

This paper will address the elements of a humane organizational culture , based on research of the…. Studies with algal cultures which relate to closed ecological life support systems CELSS are discussed. A description of a constant cell density apparatus for continuous culture of algae is included. Excretion of algal by-products, and nitrogen utilization and excretion are discussed. This study examined the degree to which cultural fit cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts.

Group differences as well…. This study replicates a cross- cultural study by Steiner and Truxillo that tested completing hypotheses concerning the relationship between job and life satisfaction. It tested the generalization of the original study in two ways: it examined educators instead of managers and it compared those from Western and Eastern cultures rather than….

Radmer, R. In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

Modular plant culture systems for life support functions. The current state of knowledge with regard to culture of higher plants in the zero-G environment is assessed; and concepts for the empirical development of small plant growth chambers for the production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are evaluated.

American and Soviet space flight experiences in gravitational biology are summarized. Graves, Kristi D. Regression models evaluated associations between culture , social and medical context and overall quality of life and its subdomains. Culturally -based feelings of breast cancer-related stigma and shame were consistently related to lower overall quality of life and lower well-being in each quality of life domain. In search of the good life : a cultural odyssey in the East and West.

In the first part of this article, the authors argue that any conception of well-being is culturally embedded and depends on how the notions of "well" and "being" are defined and practiced in different cultural communities. To support this argument, they conduct a comprehensive review of the empirical literature, which shows that members of individualistic and collectivistic cultures differ in their emotional experience of well-being. This difference has been traced to the indigenous psychology of selfhood in those cultures.

In the second part of the article, the authors debunk the myth of infinite cultural variability, while retaining the basic insight concerning the cultural constitution of well-being. They develop a theoretical model of well-being, in which agency and communion are universal dimensions of well-being, and people in different cultures require different combinations of agency and communion to experience well-being.

Following this theoretical development, the authors examine cultural impediments to the good life in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. The mutual incompatibility of agency and communion is ruled out as a possible cause of why it is so difficult to live the good life.

Instead, the authors propose a dialectical synthesis of agency and communion as a way of dealing with this challenge of living the good life. Family life and health in adolescence: a role for culture in the health inequalities debate? Until recently, the role of the family in the 'health inequalities' debate has been largely ignored.

Using data from the youngest cohort in the West of Scotland Twenty Study, three dimensions of family life family structure, culture and conflict are examined in respect of their association both with health when respondents were aged 15 and 18, and with labour market position at Despite a strong association between family structure and material deprivation, those from intact, reconstituted and single parent families were largely undifferentiated in terms of health.

By contrast, aspects of family functioning, particularly a poorer relationship and conflict with parent s , were independently associated with lower self-esteem, poorer psychological well-being and among females more physical symptoms at both ages.

In addition, both family culture and conflict were associated with labour market position over and above the effects of material deprivation, with those from family centred and lower conflict homes having a greater likelihood of being in tertiary education. While the relationships between the family and psychological well-being and, to a lesser extent, physical symptoms appeared to be mediated by self-esteem, those between the family and labour market position did not.

These findings suggest that in adolescence family life may have more direct effects on health than material factors and, through social mobility, may be indirectly linked to health inequalities in adulthood. These family processes, we argue, are expressions of cultural influences, the scope of which to date has been too narrowly focused on health behaviours.

This paper investigates the influence of the economic, social, and cultural variables on life satisfaction in Asia and Europe. The second section sets a unifying theoretical framework for all three domains by defining life satisfaction as a function of aspirations and expectations which in turn are affected by micro- and macro-level variables. We examined the role of behavioral acculturation and enculturation and cognitive cultural orientation independent and interdependent self-construal on Mexican American college students' life satisfaction.

In response to demographic shifts, colleges and universities implemented new policies, adopted new practices, and created professional development opportunities to gain support for work- life balance. Research on work- life balance reveals gender disparities, lack of policy usage, and a lack of cultural change with little understanding of the ways….

Measurement of quality of life has become increasingly relevant as an outcome parameter, especially in long-term trials. Most of the available QoL instruments depend on patient self-reports. The data can be collected by written questionnaires. There are universal questionnaires of QoL — for many diseases and the specific ones — specially created for one disease. This study aimed to identify elements related to "intercultural communicative competence" in the textbook series " Life " at A1 and A2 level published by "National Geographic Learning" which incorporates plentiful photographic content.

Activities in the textbooks, based on the four skills and visuals, were analyzed…. The decrease of rDNA amount was found in the callus cultures as compared with the plants. In contrast to other species, G. The relationship between the peculiarities of rRNA gene structure and their rearrangements in in vitro culture was suggested.

There is no. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life. This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain.

Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as ' life theorizers'.

Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's , Br. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross- culturally , different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding.

Regardless of where schools are located, teachers face the challenge of teaching and mentoring children, not only in academic achievement but in social emotional development. When faced with challenges, young children are especially vulnerable because they lack the life experience and developmental maturity to adequately cope. Relying on the lead…. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures.

Spirulina sp. It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures , under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained.

The partitioning of the assimulatory products proteins, carbohydrates, lipids were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight.

In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated. Cultural frames, qualities of life , and the aging self. We used the Self-Concept Enhancement Tactician SCENT model to explore whether older Norwegians and Canadians would tactically self-enhance on qualities considered significant within their cultures in their self-perceptions of aging.

Self-perceptions of aging were measured by the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire. The study is a secondary analysis of data collected in a larger study; older Norwegians and older Canadians were included. The Norwegian and Canadian group self-enhanced their perceptions of psychosocial loss based on harmonious social relationships and being part of a larger social group.

For self-perceptions of physical change, both groups self-enhanced on being self-sufficient and being part of a larger social group. Our findings suggest that Norwegians and Canadians are not highly individualistic people and also provide evidence of a bicultural self-perception of aging. Nurses should consider how cultural and individual perspectives affect the care priorities of older people. Alaska Native AN college students experience higher attrition rates than their non-Native peers.

Understanding the factors that contribute to quality of life "what makes life good" for AN students will help inform supportive programs that are congruent with their culture and college life experiences. Co-develop a conceptual model and a measure of quality of life QOL that reflects the experiences of AN college students. Six focus groups were conducted with 26 AN college students. Within a community-academic partnership, interactive data collection activities, co-analysis workgroup sessions and an interactive findings forum ensured a participant-driven research process.

Students identified and operationally defined eight QOL domains values, culture and traditions, spirituality, relationships, basic needs, health, learning and leisure. The metaphor of a tree visually illustrates how the domains values, culture and traditions and spirituality form the roots to the other domains that appear to branch out as students navigate the dual worldviews of Native and Western ways of living.

The eight QOL domains and their items identified during focus groups were integrated into a visual model and an objective QOL measure. The hope is to provide a useful tool for developing and evaluating university-based programs and services aimed toward promoting a positive QOL and academic success for AN students. The important role for nurses in supporting the Asian Hindu patient and family at end of life : providing culturally sensitive end-of- life care. As cultural ecology of Canada evolves with daily arrival of new immigrants, Canadians welcome them and feel very proud of preserving their multicultural heritage.

As minority groups, especially South Asian Hindus, continue to grow, there is a need to understand their cultural perspectives and accommodate their cultural preferences for end-of- life care. This article addresses end-of- life care from a point of view of Hindu culture and religion and provides a brief overview of their beliefs and rituals related to it. This article also guides nurses to understand diverse Hindu cultural practices and beliefs to help support their patients and families at this difficult time of life.

The effect of values and culture on life -support decisions. Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive.

Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life -and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems.

Speck, Rebecca M. Purpose Women in academic medicine are not achieving the same career advancement as men, and face unique challenges in managing work and family alongside intense work demands. Method As part of a larger intervention trial, the authors collected baseline survey data from women assistant professors at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine in Pearson correlations and general linear mixed modeling were used to analyze the data.

Authors investigated whether work culture moderated the association between work demands and work-to-family conflict. Results Heavy work demands were associated with increased levels of work-to-family conflict. At equivalent levels of work demands, women in more supportive cultures experienced lower levels of work-to-family conflict. This finding leads to important insights about strategies for more effectively supporting the careers of women assistant professors.

However, no AD models have fully validated this hypothesis. We recently developed a human stem cell culture model of AD by cultivating genetically modified human neural stem cells in a three-dimensional 3D cell culture system. In this review, we will discuss the progress and current limitations of AD mouse models and human stem cell models as well as explore the breakthroughs of 3D cell culture systems.

We will also share our perspective on the potential of dish models of neurodegenerative diseases for studying pathogenic cascades and therapeutic drug discovery. These housing types initially reserved for middle to high-income residents. Transformation can describe as changes from one condition to another condition that can happen continuously in time. Change is affected by internal and external factors. Internal factors include culture , perspective, and social system while external factors include science progress and other cultural influence.

This research is a descriptive study which tries to describe the phenomenon that is currently ongoing. The structure and function of human social life are not uniform; meaning in every social life setting each of the structure and function are different. The characteristic of a community will transform in continuity.

Alien To Me? The paper will introduce an original piece of research that is devoted to the socio- cultural aspects of scientifi c search for life in outer space and it draws from doctoral research in anthropology of science. In this piece of research the extraterrestrial life hypothesis is conceptualized as a significant part of the general world-view, constantly shaped by the work and discoveries of science. The paper presents data from qualitative ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the UK as well as uses quantitative data from public from the USA, UK and other countries.

A cross- cultural analysis of posthumous reproduction: The significance of the gender and margins-of- life perspectives. The scholarly discussion of posthumous reproduction PHR focuses on informed consent and the welfare of the future child, for the most part overlooking cultural differences between societies. Based on a cross- cultural comparison of legal and regulatory documents, analysis of pivotal cases and study of scholarly and media discussions in Israel and Germany, this paper analyses the relevant ethical and policy issues, and questions how cultural differences shape the practice of PHR.

The findings challenge the common classifications of PHR by highlighting the gender perspective and adding brain-dead pregnant women to the debate. Based on this study's findings, four neglected cultural factors affecting social attitudes towards PHR are identified: i the relationship between the pregnant woman and her future child; ii what constitutes the beginning of life ; iii what constitutes dying; and iv the social agent s seeking to have the future child.

The paper argues that PHR can be better understood by adding the gender and margins-of- life perspectives, and that future ethical and practical discussions of this issue could benefit from the criteria emerging from this cross- cultural analysis. Cultural and ethical considerations for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in chinese patients with cancer at the end of life. End-of- life EOL decision making is based on the values and wishes of terminally ill patients.

However, little is known on the extent to which cultural factors affect personal attitudes toward life -sustaining treatments LSTs such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR in China. This study evaluated the cultural and ethical considerations during EOL decisions and assessed the factors that affect pursuing LSTs in China. We used a case-control study design and compared their baseline characteristics with the provided EOL care and treatments. Our results reflect the need to improve EOL care and treatment in China.

Gender and culture differences in the quality of life among Americans and Koreans with atrial fibrillation. This study examined the gender and culture differences in relation to the quality of life among Americans and Koreans with atrial fibrillation.

It employed secondary data analysis and a descriptive comparative design. The settings were the cardiology outpatient clinics and the outpatient clinic in two urban hospitals in the USA and one university hospital in Korea. The quality of life was measured by the Short-Form Health Survey.

In relation to physical function, there was a statistically significant effect shown by gender, but no significant differences were found by the main effect of culture and the interaction effect of gender and culture. The significant interaction effect of gender and culture on mental health was shown. In conclusion, gender differences in the quality of life perceived by patients with atrial fibrillation varied with their cultural background.

Thus, patients' cultural background should be considered in nursing practice. Even though college students may be faced with developmental life tasks that might lead them to cognitive and emotional growth, little is known about how college students' life experiences are related to their cultural values. Understanding college students' life across culture requires both exploratory and confirmatory approaches to examine 1 ….

Author s S. Performing Organization Rapt. Dress ESA WANG 1I. Life scripts are culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in a prototypical life course. American and Danish undergraduates produced life story events and life scripts by listing the seven most important events in their own lives and in the lives of hypothetical people living ordinary lives. They also rated their events on several scales and completed measures of depression, PTSD symptoms, and centrality of a negative event to their lives.

The Danish life script replicated earlier work; the American life script showed minor differences from the Danish life script, apparently reflecting genuine differences in shared events as well as less homogeneity in the American sample. Both consisted of mostly positive events that came disproportionately from ages 15 to Valence of life story events correlated with life script valence, depression, PTSD symptoms, and identity.

In the Danish undergraduates, measures of life story deviation from the life script correlated with measures of depression and PTSD symptoms. Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire: translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Portuguese language. Psoriatic arthritis PsA has a strong negative impact on the quality of life of patients.

The aims of this study were to culturally adapt the questionnaire for Portugal and evaluate its reliability and validity in patients with PsA. Structured cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with ten PsA patients. A larger sample was recruited to determine internal consistency and construct validity. Translation and adaptation were successful. The PsAQoL could distinguish between groups of patients defined by self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis.

The Portuguese version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete, reliable and valid. Workaholism and work- life imbalance: does cultural origin influence the relationship? In recent years, workaholism has become prevalent throughout organizations and has captured the attention of organizational leaders as well as the academic and scientific communities.

Most research in this area has focused on the negative consequences of workaholism, specifically work- life imbalance. One area of research that has largely been ignored is the potential influence of demographic variables on the relationship between workaholism and work- life imbalance.

Therefore, the current study focused on how cultural origin might influence the intensity of this relationship. Based on relative deprivation theory and previous empirical work, it was expected that cultural origin would moderate the relationship between workaholism and work- life imbalance. Specifically, it was predicted that Caucasian participants would score higher on levels of workaholism than Black participants, and that the relationship between workaholism and work- life imbalance would be stronger for Caucasians than for Blacks.

The results revealed that high levels of workaholism were significantly correlated with high levels of work- life imbalance. However, results also indicated that cultural origin did not moderate the relationship between workaholism and work- life imbalance, and there was no significant mean difference between Caucasian and Black participants on our measure of workaholism.

These findings are important in that it is essential for employers to be aware of workaholic tendencies so they can better handle the negative consequences that result for the organization, and to also help promote the well-being of their employees. To culturally adapt the Family Quality of Life Scale to the Brazilian Portuguese version and evaluate the instrument reliability and family quality of life of those who have children with hearing loss.

The process of cultural adaptation of the scale followed the steps of the Guidelines for the Process of Cross- Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measure. It was conducted in three stages: translation, back translation, and application in a pilot sample, as a way to check the comprehension difficulties of the items. After it had been completed, it was administered to 41 families who have children with hearing loss and, with their results, the quality of life and reliability were analyzed based on the Cronbach's alpha statistical test.

In the first version translation , among the 25 items, there were differences between the translators only in four items; after the corrections, the second version was done back translation , in which other four more differences were found. Finally, after the final corrections, the last version was developed and used in the pilot sample without differences. Thus, it was applied to families with deaf children, who believe to be satisfied as to their quality of life.

The Cronbach's alpha test found that the scale shows a satisfactory reliability. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Family Quality of Life Scale is a tool of easy use and satisfactory reliability. The families are satisfied with their family quality of life. Advisory Committee The U. The committee will Assessing and responding to user feedback to ensure that the database meets the needs of data providers.

How do people make sense of the emotions, sensations, and cognitive abilities that make up mental life? Pioneering work on the dimensions of mind perception has been interpreted as evidence that people consider mental life to have two core components—experience e.

Inspired by Gray et al. This led to the discovery of an organization that differs strikingly from the experience—agency framework: Instead of a broad distinction between experience and agency, our studies consistently revealed three fundamental components of mental life—suites of capacities related to the body, the heart, and the mind—with each component encompassing related aspects of both experience and agency.

This body—heart—mind framework distinguishes itself from Gray et al. Author Sue Monk Kidd, who is white, employs stereotypes of African Americans and problematically appropriates features of black writing in her novel "The Secret Life of Bees. Connecting wider economic, technological, or cultural trends to the everyday life of students can be a challenge.

Food can serve as a course-long theme that helps students comprehend the essential connection between personal actions and national or international trends and develop skills of critical analysis. The author describes four activities….

We designed a culturally relevant life skills curriculum based on…. This study investigated whether the associations between a the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and b early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture.

The meanings of "anhedonia" and "depressed mood," the cardinal emotional symptoms of major depression, may be shaped by cultural norms regarding pleasure and sadness. Thirty-two European Americans, 26 Hispanic Americans, 33 Asian Americans, and 20 Russian Americans provided reports of a depressive symptoms, b momentary emotions and pleasure, and c global subjective well-being.

Momentary reports were collected over 10 days using handheld personal digital assistants. Reports of anhedonia were associated with heightened levels of momentary low arousal negative emotions e. Symptoms of anhedonia and depressed mood interacted in their associations with momentary pleasure. In addition, the associations of anhedonia and depressed mood with positive emotions and life satisfaction differed across cultural groups.

Specifically, these symptoms were associated with dampened positive emotions in the Asian American group only. Additionally, anhedonia was associated with dampened global life satisfaction in the European American group only. These results suggest that reports of anhedonia and depressed mood cannot be interpreted at face value as specific and culture -free indicators of emotional deficits.

Instead, they appear to signal changes in the balance of positive and negative emotions, with the exact nature of these signals shaped at least in part by cultural context. This conclusion has important consequences for the clinical interpretation of depressive symptoms in multicultural societies.

For the benefit of others: generativity and meaning in life in the elderly in four cultures. Generativity has been argued to be an important indicator of successful aging. Indeed, generative concern has been found to be associated with meaning in life. In the present study, this relationship is argued to be partly explained through generative goals. Moreover, the path between generative goals and meaning in life is hypothesized to be conditional on belief in the species assessed through Machiavellianism as a proxy variable.

This moderated mediation model is tested with data from 4 cultural samples: Cameroonian, Czech, German, and Hong Kong Chinese participants aged at least 60 years provided information on their generative concern, generative goals, meaning in life , and Machiavellianism.

Controlling for effects of relationship, level of education, everyday competence, and cognitive functioning on meaning in life , analyses confirmed the moderated mediation model in all cultural samples. That is, generative concern is partly associated with meaning in life because it leads to generative goals. In turn, these provide individuals with meaning in life.

This association, however, depends on belief in the species in that meaning in life does not increase when Machiavellian attitudes compete with generative goals. An assessment of cultural values and resident-centered culture change in U. Culture change initiatives propose to improve care by addressing the lack of managerial supports and prevalent stressful work environments in the industry; however, little is known about how culture change facilities differ from facilities in the industry that have not chosen to affiliate with the resident-centered care movements.

The aim of this study was to evaluate representation of organizational culture values within a random sample of U. We collected reports of cultural values using a well-established competing values framework instrument in a random survey of facility administrators and directors of nursing within all states. Directors of nursing and administrators did not differ significantly in their reports of culture and facility measures combined their responses.

Nursing facilities favored market-focused cultural values on average, and developmental values, key to innovation, were the least common across all nursing homes. Only high developmental cultural values were linked to participation in culture change initiatives. Culture change facilities were not different from non- culture change facilities in the promotion of employee focus as organizational culture , as emphasized in group culture values.

Likewise, culture change facilities were also not more likely to have hierarchical or market foci than non- culture change facilities. Our results counter the argument that culture change facilities have a stronger internal employee focus than facilities more generally but do show that culture change facilities report stronger developmental cultures than non- culture change facilities, which.

Cross- cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. The authors assessed whether cross- cultural variations in the strength of associations were related to societal dimensions including income and individualism. At the national level, individualism correlated -.

This relation, however, was moderated by the individualism of the society. The associations of financial, friend, and family satisfactions with life satisfaction and with self-esteem also varied across nations. Financial satisfaction was a stronger correlate of life satisfaction in poorer countries. It was found that life satisfaction and self-esteem were clearly discriminable constructs. Satisfaction ratings, except for financial satisfaction, varied between slightly positive and fairly positive.

Health-related quality of life of irritable bowel syndrome patients in different cultural settings. The effect across different cultural settings of IBS on their quality of life has been little studied. Health-related quality of life , measured by SF and demographics, life style indicators and co-morbidity, was measured.

Significant differences were found for the dimensions mental health p cultural environments could perceive their disease differently and that the disease might affect their everyday life and quality of life in a different way. The Cretan population, and especially women, are more seriously affected mentally by their disease than Swedish IBS cases.

Coping with IBS in everyday life might be more problematic in the Cretan environment than in the Swedish setting. Persons with Irritable bowel syndrome IBS are seriously affected in their everyday life. Prescribed journeys through life : Cultural differences in mental time travel between Middle Easterners and Scandinavians. Mental time travel is the ability to remember past events and imagine future events. Here, Middle Easterners and Scandinavians generated important past and future events.

These different societies present a unique opportunity to examine effects of culture. Findings indicate stronger influence of normative schemas and greater use of mental time travel to teach, inform and direct behaviour in the Middle East compared with Scandinavia. The Middle Easterners generated more events that corresponded to their cultural life script and that contained religious words, whereas the Scandinavians reported events with a more positive mood impact.

Effects of gender were mainly found in the Middle East. Main effects of time orientation largely replicated recent findings showing that simulation of future and past events are not necessarily parallel processes. In accordance with the notion that future simulations rely on schema-based construction, important future events showed a higher overlap with life script events than past events in both cultures.

In general, cross- cultural discrepancies were larger in future compared with past events. Notably, the high focus in the Middle East on sharing future events to give cultural guidance is consistent with the increased adherence to normative scripts found in this culture.

All rights reserved. Patients' responses to quality-of- life questionnaires are dependent on the cultural milieu. The aims of this study were to translate the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life questionnaire, which was developed in the West, into Korean and to validate the translated questionnaire in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Translation of the original questionnaire was performed according to accepted linguistic validation guidelines. Korean patients had no difficulty understanding the questions.

Data from the translated questionnaire were well correlated with results from the SF questionnaire and reflected the stress status of the patients as measured on the Perceived Stress Scale. Some questionnaire items seemed, on first analysis, to be problematic in this subset of patients, but these results may relate, in part, to cultural differences between Korea and the West.

We conclude that the translated questionnaire is reliable and offers an accurate measure of quality of life for Korean patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The lack of clarity and consistency in the definition, measurement, and analysis of culture constrains current research on the topic. Method First, the authors conducted a review of published literature, held focus groups, and consulted with subject matter experts to develop a measure of academic workplace culture for women.

Then they developed and pilot-tested the measure with a convenience sample of women assistant professors. After refining the measure, they administered it, along with additional scales for validation, to women assistant professors at the University of Pennsylvania. Results A CCWAS consists of four distinct, but related dimensions: equal access, work- life balance, freedom from gender biases, and supportive leadership.

The analyses provided strong evidence for the reliability and validity of their measure. The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs.

The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout…. Racial, cultural , and ethnic factors influencing end-of- life care. Past efforts in the palliative and end-of- life care field have been laudably directed at increasing the cultural competence of providers and institutions and improving outreach to multicultural communities.

Today, however, we face new challenges with regard to racial, cultural , and ethnic factors at the end of life. We now have documented evidence of disparities in almost every area of health care. In addition, breakthroughs in genomics research, including "race-based therapeutics," have redefined the meaning of our human differences.

By definition, when considering these concepts, our focus shifts from the individual to that of group membership. In turn, this suggests using a population-based or epidemiological approach, which at once reveals inequalities and inequities in mortality patterns across diverse groups. Understanding and serving the needs of specific populations requires us to apply a framework of equity and to consider strategies to eliminate disparities. These include identifying sources of bias and discrimination in health care; enhancing the collection of racial, ethnic, and other demographic data; and increasing the representation of a range of diverse population groups in well designed qualitative and quantitative research.

Using an epidemiological framework does not suggest, however, that we lose sight of dying individuals and their families. At the end of life , an individualized approach to care with a focus on quality is paramount for any patient, regardless of racial, ethnic, or cultural background.

Cultural variation in the use of current life satisfaction to predict the future. Three studies examined cultural and situational influences on the tendency for people to use their current life satisfaction to predict future life events. On the basis of the self-enhancement literature, it was predicted that either writing about a positive personal experience or reading about another's negative experience would lead European Americans to focus their attention on internal attributes and thus would lead them to use their current life satisfaction in predicting the future.

Conversely, on the basis of the self-criticism literature, it was predicted that these same conditions would lead Asian Americans to focus their attention on external factors and, therefore, would decrease their likelihood of using their current life satisfaction to predict the future. Studies 1 and 2 supported these hypotheses. Study 3 showed that these patterns could be obtained by subliminally priming concepts associated with individualism and collectivism. Moving chairs in Starbucks: Observational studies find rice-wheat cultural differences in daily life in China.

Traditional paddy rice farmers had to share labor and coordinate irrigation in a way that most wheat farmers did not. We observed people in everyday life to test whether these agricultural legacies gave rice-farming southern China a more interdependent culture and wheat-farming northern China a more independent culture. In Study 1, we counted people sitting in cafes in six cities and found that people in northern China were more likely to be sitting alone.

People in northern China were more likely to move the chair out of the way, which is consistent with findings that people in individualistic cultures are more likely to try to control the environment. People in southern China were more likely to adjust the self to the environment by squeezing through the chairs. Nondisclosure of terminal prognosis in the context of intercultural interactions can cause moral distress among health care providers guided exclusively by informed consent.

However, cultural humility can show that revealing and withholding prognostic information are two equally valid paths to the goal of protecting the patient from harm. Assumptions and history giving rise to the preference for truth telling in the United States US are examined. Principles of biomedical ethics are described within the context of US, Chinese, and Latin American cultures.

The process of cultural competence in the delivery of health care services is explained and introduces the concept of cultural humility. By focusing more on biases and assumptions brought forth from the dominant culture , health care providers may experience less moral distress and convey increased caring in the context of intercultural interactions and nondisclosure of prognosis of a terminal illness.

The CDLQI was translated into Serbian following international recommendations for translation and cultural adaptation. The validation study was carried out on a large cohort of secondary schoolchildren who self-reported acne. Translating the CDLQI consisted of forward translation, reconciliation, back translation, back-translation review, and cognitive debriefing.

The good internal consistency of the scale was demonstrated with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0. A Spearman correlation coefficient of 0. The translation, cross- cultural adaptation, and psychometric qualities of the CDLQI were satisfactory, enabling its application in clinical practice and future studies. This article contributes to the Transcultural Psychiatry special issue of autobiographical articles on: ''The Personal and the Professional: Lives and Careers of Cultural Psychiatrists.

Growing up as a part-Chinese, part-white child in rural Midwestern America resulted in frequently being asked: ''What are you? Experiences of being an outsider, family histories, and early observations of racism are linked to later interests in cross- cultural psychiatry, ethics, and the protection of vulnerable populations.

She describes her research on cross- cultural measurement, depression, suicidality, domestic violence and violence in war. Issues of career advancement and internal conflict are described for women academics who occupy three simultaneous, primary roles: academic, doctor and mother.

The theme of ''crossing,'' as in ''cross- cultural ,'' indicates the effort and intention required to move between races, cultures , classes, intellectual disciplines, personal and professional identities, clinical and academic roles, and social roles allocated to men and women. Review of the literature on cultural competence and end-of- life treatment decisions: the role of the hospitalist.

Specific spiritual needs were identified both within and outside organized religions when members of those religions were hospitalized at the end of life. End-of- life care may present unique challenges and opportunities in culturally discordant hospitalist-patient relationships. Adjusting for cross- cultural differences in computer-adaptive tests of quality of life.

Previous studies using the WHOQOL measures have demonstrated that the relationship between individual items and the underlying quality of life QoL construct may differ between cultures. If unaccounted for, these differing relationships can lead to measurement bias which, in turn, can undermine the reliability of results.

Data were fitted to the partial credit 'Rasch' model. We used four item banks previously derived from the WHOQOL measure, which provided excellent measurement for physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life domains 40 items overall. Cross- cultural differential item functioning was assessed using analysis of variance for item residuals and post hoc Tukey tests.

Simulated computer-adaptive tests CATs were conducted to assess the efficiency and precision of the four items banks. Simulated CATs were more precise and efficient than longer paper-based alternatives. Assessing differential item functioning using item response theory can identify measurement invariance between cultures which, if uncontrolled, may undermine accurate comparisons in computer-adaptive testing assessments of QoL. We demonstrate how compensating for DIF using item anchoring allowed data from all four countries to be compared on a common metric, thus facilitating assessments which were both sensitive to cultural nuance and comparable between countries.

Culture and end of life care: a scoping exercise in seven European countries. Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life EoL care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio- cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence on cultural issues in EoL care generated in the different countries.

We scoped the literature for Germany, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal, carrying out electronic searches in 16 international and country-specific databases and handsearches in 17 journals, bibliographies of relevant papers and webpages.

We analysed the literature which was unearthed, in its entirety and by type reviews, original studies, opinion pieces and conducted quantitative analyses for each country and across countries. Qualitative techniques generated themes and sub-themes.

A total of papers were reviewed. The following themes facilitated cross-country comparison: setting, caregivers, communication, medical EoL decisions, minority ethnic groups, and knowledge, attitudes and values of death and care. Heidelberg Cement AG www. Hieronimi www. Rudolf Dudler AG www. Sacher GmbH Glinder Baustoffhandel und hagebau-kompaktmarkt www. Sebald Zement GmbH www. Solubel Vertriebs GmbH www. Steinhauffs Baumarkt www.

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Money bet on the super bowl Refuse Accept. Golf betting 2 balls the remarkable jerzmanowska abetting of Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital has gained wide popularity along with jerzmanowska abetting and conceptual debates. By contrast, aspects of family functioning, particularly a poorer relationship and conflict with parent swere independently associated with lower self-esteem, poorer psychological well-being and among females more physical symptoms at both ages. Some questionnaire items seemed, on first analysis, to be problematic in this subset of patients, but these results may relate, in part, to cultural differences between Korea and the West. An assessment of cultural values and resident-centered culture change in U. References Conant, J. This association, however, depends on belief in the species in that meaning in life does not increase when Machiavellian attitudes compete with generative goals.

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Within such diversity there will be differing beliefs systems about death and dying. This may be a challenging prospect for health professionals. This article discusses how cultural diversity may impact care and provides some strategies for the general practitioner when considering the provision of end of life care. This article does not attempt to provide GPs with a prescriptive approach to multicultural care, as this would run the risk of stereotyping individuals.

Rather, it discusses the barriers to end of life care among different cultural and ethnic groups, and suggests ways in which to improve understanding of different cultural needs in end of life care. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany. By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey.

The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…. Does Cultural Capital Matter? Since the remarkable work of Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital has gained wide popularity along with theoretical and conceptual debates.

This trend represents the social-structural change from materialism to postmaterialism. However, there are few empirical studies which find the cause and effect of cultural capital. Based on…. Henri Lefebvre , philosopher and sociologist, is, together with Theodor W.

His engagement with Marxism led him to analyse everyday life in post-war France in order to decipher the possibilities of,…. We need to understand how culture and socioeconomics influence quality care. Professionals need to explore what the family Infusing culture into oncology research on quality of life.

To review the literature relevant to understanding culturally informed oncology research, particularly as it relates to health-related quality of life. Published articles and books. A cultural perspective to the prevailing theory and research methods used in oncology research with respect to quality of life is imperative.

A multidimensional and practical framework can be applied to increase cultural competence in research by addressing the purpose of the research, theoretical framework, and methodologic approaches. Culturally competent, multicultural research will help the scientific community better comprehend disparities that exist in health-related quality of life so that benefits can be experienced by all patients.

Nursing practice and research must continue its leadership role to infuse cultural competence and reduce disparities in the healthcare system. Teaching about Culture and Communicative Life in India. Basic patterns of culture and communication in India such as world view, reincarnation, concepts of Karma and Dharma, stages of life , the caste system, time orientation, collectivism, hierarchical orientation, language situation, and nonverbal communication norms are an integral part of Hinduism and Indian culture , and have a significant influence….

The transmission and stability of cultural life scripts: a cross- cultural study. Cultural life scripts are shared knowledge about the timing of important life events. In the present study, we examined whether cultural life scripts are transmitted through traditions and whether there are additional ways through which they can be attained by asking Australian and Malaysian participants which information sources they had used to generate the life script of their culture.

Participants hardly reported that they had used cultural and religious traditions. They more often reported that they had used their own experiences and experiences of relatives and friends. They also reported the use of comments of relatives and friends and the use of newspapers, books, movies and television programmes.

Furthermore, we examined the stability of life scripts and similarities and differences across cultures. We found that life scripts are stable cognitive structures and that there are, besides cross- cultural differences in the content, small cross- cultural differences in the valence and distribution of life script events, with the Australian life script containing more positive events and more events expected to occur before the age of Impact of culture on autobiographical life structure in depression.

Distortions in autobiographical memory have been implicated in major depressive disorder MDD. Those with MDD demonstrate a 'depressogenic' autobiographical life structure. Research has not examined how culture influences this process. We investigated whether Malay individuals members of an interdependent culture with MDD demonstrated a 'depressogenic' autobiographical life structure similar to that of British individuals members of an independent culture with MDD.

Malay individuals with MDD or no history of MDD completed the life -structure card-sorting task, which provided a novel method for investigating organizational structure of the life narrative. These data were compared to previously collected data in which British individuals with MDD or without MDD had completed the same task within the same experimental protocol.

Pan- culturally those with MDD had greater negativity i. While the British MDD group had greater compartmentalization i. The findings suggest culture may shape aspects of the autobiographical life structure in MDD. The majority of the literature investigating depression pertains to individuals from European Western cultures , despite recognition that depression ranks as one of the most debilitating diseases worldwide.

This raises. Perceived social image and life satisfaction across cultures. We studied the relationship between perceived social image and life satisfaction in four different cultural groups. For these participants, perceived social image predicted life satisfaction above and beyond the effects of emotions and academic achievement.

Academic achievement only predicted life satisfaction among White British and European Americans. Emotions were significant predictors of life satisfaction for all participants. Cultural scripts guide recall of intensely positive life events. In four studies, we examined the temporal distribution of positive and negative memories of momentous life events. College students and middle-aged adults reported events occurring from the ages of 8 to 18 years in which they had felt especially good or especially bad about themselves.

Distributions of positive memories showed a marked peak at ages 17 and In contrast, distributions of negative memories were relatively flat. These patterns were consistent for males and females and for younger and older adults.

Content analyses indicated that a substantial proportion of positive memories from late adolescence described culturally prescribed landmark events surrounding the major life transition from high school to college. When the participants were asked for recollections from life periods that lack obvious age-linked milestone events, age distributions of positive and negative memories were similar.

The results support and extend Berntsen and Rubin's conclusion that cultural expectations, or life scripts, organize recall of positive, but not negative, events. This book addresses the state of contemporary U. The book is part cultural history, part…. This cross- cultural study compared the lives of Chinese children and British expatriate children, assessed the children's perception of potentially stressful life events, and examined the relationship between the children's cognitive maturity and their adjustment skills.

Subjects were 25 British preschool children living in Singapore and 25 local…. Cultural differences in end-of- life care. The exact time of death for many intensive care unit patients is increasingly preceded by an end-of- life decision. Such decisions are fraught with ethical, religious, moral, cultural , and legal difficulties. Cultural variations in attitude to such issues are perhaps expected between continents, but key differences also exist on a more local basis, for example, among the countries of Europe.

Physicians need to be aware of the potential cultural differences in the attitudes not only of their colleagues, but also of their patients and families. Open discussion of these issues and some change in our attitude toward life and death are needed to enable such patients to have a pain-free, dignified death. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures.

Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the theoretical development and initial validation of the newly developed Work- Life Balance Culture Scale WLBCS , an instrument for measuring an organizational culture that promotes the work- life balance of employees. To assess construct validity, a priori hypotheses were formulated and subsequently tested using correlation analyses.

Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a one-factor model. Results of the bivariate correlation analyses may be interpreted as preliminary evidence of the scale's construct validity. Its conciseness makes it particularly suitable for use in employee surveys to gain initial insight into a company's perceived work- life balance culture.

The cultural life script of Qatar and across cultures : effects of gender and religion. Cultural life scripts CLS are culturally shared cognitive representations of the expected order and timing of important life events in a prototypical life. Through three studies data from Qatar were analysed and compared to previously collected data from Denmark, Turkey, and the US. In Study 1 we examined the CLS of Qatar in order to determine whether the clear segregation of men and women as well as the centrality of religion in this society would influence the CLS.

A total of 55 Qatari undergraduates completed the standard CLS task, imaging a Qatari infant of their own as well as the opposite gender. In Study 2 important personal life story events were collected from 83 Qatari undergraduates in order to explore the overlap between remembered life events and CLS events. There was a considerable overlap of events across cultures , but we also found that the Qatari CLS showed more gender differences and contained more religious and positive events compared to the other three countries.

The cross- cultural adaptation of POLST entailed several methodological considerations, which may be informative for international researchers who may also consider bringing POLST to their countries as a means to promote care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences. Cross- cultural adaptation study. Twenty physicians and 10 patients at a university hospital participated in the pilot tests. The cross- cultural adaptation process included choosing which existing POLST form s to use as a source, deciding the intended reading level, which healthcare professionals should be allowed to sign the form, and consultation with attorneys, bioethicists, and members of the National POLST Paradigm Task Force.

Pilot tests occurred in two stages using different approaches. Second, trained investigators completed POLST forms after engaging in advance care planning conversations with 10 hospitalized patients or patients' surrogates. The authors hope such new adaptations will broaden the possibilities of research using POLST and also may promote wider provision of care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences.

In the last 35 yr, 17 commercial aviation accidents and incidents, with fatalities, could likely have been attributed to mental disease of a pilot. Screening tools for mental health risks in airline pilots are needed. There is growing interest in pilot peer-support programs and how to incorporate them in a just culture , meaning that pilots can report mental health complaints without a risk of job or income loss.

We combined findings from aviation accidents and incidents with a search of scientific literature to provide data-based recommendations for screening, peer-support, and a just culture approach to mental health problems. Commercial aviation accidents and incidents in which a mental disorder of a pilot was thought to play a role were reviewed. Subsequently, PubMed and PsychInfo literature searches were performed on peer-support programs, just culture human resource management, and the risk of negative life events on developing suicidal ideation and behavior in comparable professional groups.

Lethal accidents were mostly related to impaired coping with negative life events. Negative life events are clearly related to suicidal thoughts, attempts, and completed suicide. A protective effect of peer-support programs on mental health problems has not been established, although peer-support programs are generally appreciated by those involved.

We did not find relevant literature on just culture. Negative life events are likely a useful screening tool for mental health risks. There is still a lack of evidence on how peer-support groups should be designed and how management of mental health risks can be implemented in a just culture. Mulder S , de Rooy D. Pilot mental health, negative life events, and improving safety with peer support and a just culture.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform. This Harlem life : black families and everyday life in the s and s. This article uses Probation Department files to reconstruct the lives of five ordinary residents of Harlem. It highlights what that black metropolis offered those outside the political and cultural elite, who have dominated historical scholarship, showing how ordinary blacks negotiated the challenges of life in northern neighborhoods, and drew on institutions and organizations, to establish and sustain new lives.

We offer the kind of individualized perspective on everyday life that other scholars have provided for high culture , but which does not exist for other realms of existence in Harlem, even in early twentieth century sociological studies of black life. Where scholars seeking to distinguish the neighborhood from a slum have pointed to the prevailing pride and self-confidence of its residents, this article directs attention to more immediate, concrete supports that sustained and enriched life in Harlem.

Relationships with spouses, children, siblings and cousins sustained individuals faced with the social reality of living in overcrowded, deteriorating, disease infested housing, subject to the racism of white police, politicians and employers; so too did friendships made in nightclubs, speakeasies, dances and movie theatres, and membership of churches, fraternal organizations, social clubs, and sports clubs and teams.

To investigate the impact of cultural factors on quality of life QOL and to identify appropriate ways of dividing sub-populations for population norm-based quality of life assessment. Another questionnaire was developed to assess cultural values. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Guangzhou residents, which included respondents from communities and patients who visited outpatient departments of hospitals.

Two regression models with and without including cultural variables were constructed, and the extent of impact exerted by the cultural factors was assessed through a comparison of the change of adjusted R square values. The multiple regression analysis showed that social and demographic factors contributed to 6.

Social support, horizontal collectivism, vertical individualism, escape acceptance, fear of death, health value, supernatural belief had a significant impact on QOL. However, social support was the only one factor that had an impact on all of the four QOL domains. It is necessary to divide sub- cultural populations for. Special Forces: Culture Warriors.

NREL: U. The normativity of life scripts and its relation with life story events across cultures and subcultures. This study explored the normativity of individual life scripts and their relation to actual life story memories across countries Turkey and Germany and subcultures urban vs. Germany provided both their individual versions of the life script and seven most important personal memories.

The study confirmed expectations for the normativity of life scripts, but not for the normativity of most important memories. We conclude that the normativity of life scripts is influenced both by the individualist vs. PubMed Central. Objectives Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Latinas. This study examined social, cultural , and health care system factors that impact quality of life and survivorship experiences of Latina immigrant breast cancer survivors.

Research staff translated transcripts from Spanish into English. Two trained raters reviewed the content and identified themes. Thematic content analysis was used to categorize and organize data. All women were diagnosed and treated in the U. Navigating the U. Conclusion Latina breast cancer survivors adhere to certain cultural values and face unique issues as immigrants, potentially influencing overall quality of life and doctor-patient communication.

User Poll In preparation for the U. The results from that poll and information gathered from the stakeholders polling data and feedback from life cycle analysis supporters helped develop the U. Life Cycle Inventory. Another critical point to be FINAL 3. While this. Quality of life among immigrant Latina breast cancer survivors: realities of culture and enhancing cancer care. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Latinas.

This study examined social, cultural , and health care system factors that impact the quality of life and survivorship experiences of Latina immigrant breast cancer survivors. Latina breast cancer survivors adhere to certain cultural values and face unique issues as immigrants, potentially influencing overall quality of life and doctor-patient communication.

Efforts to improve Latina immigrant breast cancer survivors' quality of life could include increased assessment of psychosocial functioning and referral to social support services, culturally sensitive navigation programs, and consistent use of appropriately trained interpreters.

Life Cycle Inventory Database - Publications. Publications Planning Documents U. The cultural life script as cognitive schema: how the life script shapes memory for fictional life stories. We tested, across three studies, the effect of the cultural life script on memory and its phenomenological properties.

We focused in particular on the mnemonic effects of both schema-consistency and frequency in the life script. Our primary finding was that, across all three studies, higher-frequency events were more memorable than lower-frequency events, as measured through either recognition or recall.

We also attained three additional, complementary effects: First, schema-inconsistent events received remember ratings more often than schema-consistent events in Study 2, with a trend to this effect in Study 1 ; second, where an event's emotional valence was inconsistent with the life script, memory for its valence was reconstructed to fit the script in Study 2 ; and, third, intrusions in recall were disproportionately for life script events in Study 3 , although that was not the case in recognition in Study 1.

We conclude that the life script serves as a cognitive schema in how it shapes memory and its phenomenological properties. Federal Register , , , , Culture is commonly regarded as a factor in pain behaviour and experience, but the meaning of the term is often unclear. There is little evidence that pain perception is modified by cultural or ethnic factors, but pain expression by children and interpretation by caregivers may be affected by the culture of the patient or the caregiver.

A focus on cultural influences should not distract clinicians from the need to be sensitive to individual beliefs and attitudes. Using Schein's framework of cultural change, this study examined two institutions of higher education that have achieved or attempted a cultural change to understand if and how to develop a culture of work- life balance for faculty and staff.

The results identified a narrative of eligibility that arose from the discourse of faculty…. An educational program was developed to train practitioners to provide care for patients and families that are responsive to cultural concerns. The aim was to increase knowledge and improve attitudes toward providing culturally proficient and culturally sensitive care for patients and families facing life -threatening illnesses.

The program…. Cultural differences with end-of- life care in the critical care unit. Critical care nurses are providing healthcare for an increasingly multicultural population. This ever-increasing diversity in cultures and subcultures presents a challenge to nurses who want to provide culturally competent care.

It is common for patients and families to face difficult decisions about end-of- life care in critical care units, and minority cultures do not always believe in the Westerner's core values of patient autonomy and self-determination. Knowledge of these cultural differences is fundamental if critical care nurses wish to provide appropriate and culturally competent information regarding end-of- life decisions.

Culture , personality, and subjective well-being: integrating process models of life satisfaction. The authors examined the interplay of personality and cultural factors in the prediction of the affective hedonic balance and the cognitive life satisfaction components of subjective well-being SWB. They predicted that the influence of personality on life satisfaction is mediated by hedonic balance and that the relation between hedonic balance and life satisfaction is moderated by culture.

As a consequence, they predicted that the influence of personality on life satisfaction is also moderated by culture. Participants from 2 individualistic cultures United States, Germany and 3 collectivistic cultures Japan, Mexico, Ghana completed measures of Extraversion, Neuroticism, hedonic balance, and life satisfaction.

As predicted, Extraversion and Neuroticism influenced hedonic balance to the same degree in all cultures , and hedonic balance was a stronger predictor of life satisfaction in individualistic than in collectivistic cultures. The influence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on life satisfaction was largely mediated by hedonic balance.

The results suggest that the influence of personality on the emotional component of SWB is pancultural, whereas the influence of personality on the cognitive component of SWB is moderated by culture. It' s a Wonderful Life. The author shares his perspectives of teaching law for over forty years. In this article, he recalls his experiences with students, colleagues, and exams. Early in his career, he learned an important life lesson that he remembers nearly every day: if you love your job, it is not really work.

He feels this is the most important perspective that he…. Cultural and contextual analysis of quality of life among older Nepali women. The quality-of- life construct can be used to assess how well an individual's needs are met or being met by the society. However, in the dominant narratives of quality of life in old age, exploration of the impact of cultural differences on how older adults define and assess their quality of life has been limited.

Moreover, the examination of heterogeneity within one culture and its influence on quality of life has been largely ignored. The present study compares the quality of life as defined by two samples of Nepali elderly women, those who live with their families and those who live in an old-age home, and presents data on factors associated with quality of life in the two samples.

The results show that social and cultural norms, informed by religious principles that prescribe familial elder care, impact how quality of life is described by both groups of women. Research indicates Latino males are under-represented in the educational pipeline and administrative ranks of public education.

Further studies attribute the Latino culture as contributing to the obstacles encountered in Latino advancement. This qualitative study was a life history of a first generation U. Astrobiology in culture : the search for extraterrestrial life as "science". The questions that define astrobiology as a scientific endeavor are multidisciplinary in nature, and this endeavor is broadly appealing to public audiences as well as to the scientific community.

Thus, it is useful to examine astrobiology in culture -in scientific culture , official culture , and popular culture. A researcher may explore science in culture , science as culture , by analyzing its rhetoric, the primary means that people use to construct their social realities-their cultural environment, as it were.

This analysis follows this path, considering scientific and public interest in astrobiology and SETI and focusing on scientific and official constructions of the two endeavors. This analysis will also consider whether and how scientific and public conceptions of astrobiology and SETI, which are related but at the same time separate endeavors, converge or diverge and whether and how these convergences or divergences affect the scientific authority, credibility, and legitimacy of these endeavors.

The circle of life : A cross- cultural comparison of children's attribution of life -cycle traits. Do children attribute mortality and other life -cycle traits to all minded beings? The present study examined whether culture influences young children's ability to conceptualize and differentiate human beings from supernatural beings such as God in terms of life -cycle traits. Children did not anthropomorphize but differentiated among human and supernatural beings, attributing life -cycle traits to humans, but not to God.

Although 3-year-olds differentiated significantly among agents, 5-year-olds attributed correct life -cycle traits more consistently than younger children. The results also indicated some cross- cultural variation in these attributions. Implications for biological conceptual development are discussed.

This paper is a cross- cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified.

This study of cross- cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation. This article examines how and to what extent Luxembourg society was "exposed" to visual representations of the prospering steel industries and labour and working-class culture s from the s until the s --a period of massive industrialisation--and how it thus gradually "learned to labour".

Indeed, modern visual media were…. Analysis of slang terms that college students use to characterize peers at Holy Cross College Massachusetts and University of California, Davis suggests that undergraduate slang usage is socially complex, the language is reflective of campus and academic life , and that it portrays undergraduate life from the perspective of dominant student….

The main research question of this study was: How do student life offices at four diverse Catholic colleges and universities create an environment that is expressive of a Catholic way of life? This research question was operationalized by two research sub questions: How do senior student affairs officers, mid-level student affairs officers, and…. Correlates of life satisfaction among older people in China: an examination of two cultural variables.

This article examines the relationships between the two cultural variables of having mianzi in social interactions and Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity and life satisfaction among older people in a coastal city in mainland China. The mediating effect of having mianzi in social interactions on the relationship between Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity and life satisfaction is also examined. The study applies a non-probability sampling and adopts a face-to-face interview approach using a questionnaire composed of close-ended questions.

A total of valid questionnaires are obtained. Multiple regression analysis is used to test the hypotheses. Findings indicate that the two cultural variables are associated significantly with life satisfaction, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. The variable of Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity is also indirectly associated with life satisfaction through its effect on having mianzi in social interactions. Older people with higher endorsement of positive Chinese cultural beliefs of adversity and higher degree of having mianzi in social interactions tend to have higher life satisfaction.

Professionals working with older people should be sensitive to cultural variables that exert impacts on older people's life satisfaction. A cultural perspective on emotional experiences across the life span. Past research suggests that older adults place a greater priority on goals of maintaining positive experiences and distancing from negative experiences.

We hypothesized that these aging-related differences in emotional experiences are more pronounced in Western cultures that encourage linear approaches to well-being compared with Eastern cultures that encourage more dialectic approaches to well-being. We compared reports of positive and negative emotional experiences from random samples of Americans a culture characterized by focus on positive and distancing from negative experiences and Japanese a culture characterized by its endorsement of dialectical experiences.

In support of our hypothesis, older Americans reported significantly less negative emotions in unpleasant situations, relative to their younger counterparts. Furthermore, both trait-level negativity i. In contrast, such aging-related effects were absent in the Japanese respondents.

Even though older and younger Japanese reported the same amount of negative emotions in unpleasant situations, older Japanese also reported more positive emotions in the same unpleasant situations. Together, these findings highlight the role of culture for understanding how emotional experiences unfold across adulthood. HRD can have a humanistic impact on organizations through influence on the values embedded in the organization culture. One approach is through work- life policies and programs, which have become synonymous with humane, employee-friendly organizations.

This paper will address the elements of a humane organizational culture , based on research of the…. Studies with algal cultures which relate to closed ecological life support systems CELSS are discussed. A description of a constant cell density apparatus for continuous culture of algae is included. Excretion of algal by-products, and nitrogen utilization and excretion are discussed.

This study examined the degree to which cultural fit cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts. Group differences as well…. This study replicates a cross- cultural study by Steiner and Truxillo that tested completing hypotheses concerning the relationship between job and life satisfaction.

It tested the generalization of the original study in two ways: it examined educators instead of managers and it compared those from Western and Eastern cultures rather than…. Radmer, R. In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production.

Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

Modular plant culture systems for life support functions. The current state of knowledge with regard to culture of higher plants in the zero-G environment is assessed; and concepts for the empirical development of small plant growth chambers for the production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are evaluated. American and Soviet space flight experiences in gravitational biology are summarized. Graves, Kristi D. Regression models evaluated associations between culture , social and medical context and overall quality of life and its subdomains.

Culturally -based feelings of breast cancer-related stigma and shame were consistently related to lower overall quality of life and lower well-being in each quality of life domain. In search of the good life : a cultural odyssey in the East and West. In the first part of this article, the authors argue that any conception of well-being is culturally embedded and depends on how the notions of "well" and "being" are defined and practiced in different cultural communities.

To support this argument, they conduct a comprehensive review of the empirical literature, which shows that members of individualistic and collectivistic cultures differ in their emotional experience of well-being. This difference has been traced to the indigenous psychology of selfhood in those cultures. In the second part of the article, the authors debunk the myth of infinite cultural variability, while retaining the basic insight concerning the cultural constitution of well-being.

They develop a theoretical model of well-being, in which agency and communion are universal dimensions of well-being, and people in different cultures require different combinations of agency and communion to experience well-being. Following this theoretical development, the authors examine cultural impediments to the good life in individualistic and collectivistic cultures.

The mutual incompatibility of agency and communion is ruled out as a possible cause of why it is so difficult to live the good life. Instead, the authors propose a dialectical synthesis of agency and communion as a way of dealing with this challenge of living the good life. Family life and health in adolescence: a role for culture in the health inequalities debate? Until recently, the role of the family in the 'health inequalities' debate has been largely ignored. Using data from the youngest cohort in the West of Scotland Twenty Study, three dimensions of family life family structure, culture and conflict are examined in respect of their association both with health when respondents were aged 15 and 18, and with labour market position at Despite a strong association between family structure and material deprivation, those from intact, reconstituted and single parent families were largely undifferentiated in terms of health.

By contrast, aspects of family functioning, particularly a poorer relationship and conflict with parent s , were independently associated with lower self-esteem, poorer psychological well-being and among females more physical symptoms at both ages. In addition, both family culture and conflict were associated with labour market position over and above the effects of material deprivation, with those from family centred and lower conflict homes having a greater likelihood of being in tertiary education.

While the relationships between the family and psychological well-being and, to a lesser extent, physical symptoms appeared to be mediated by self-esteem, those between the family and labour market position did not. These findings suggest that in adolescence family life may have more direct effects on health than material factors and, through social mobility, may be indirectly linked to health inequalities in adulthood.

These family processes, we argue, are expressions of cultural influences, the scope of which to date has been too narrowly focused on health behaviours. This paper investigates the influence of the economic, social, and cultural variables on life satisfaction in Asia and Europe. The second section sets a unifying theoretical framework for all three domains by defining life satisfaction as a function of aspirations and expectations which in turn are affected by micro- and macro-level variables.

We examined the role of behavioral acculturation and enculturation and cognitive cultural orientation independent and interdependent self-construal on Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. In response to demographic shifts, colleges and universities implemented new policies, adopted new practices, and created professional development opportunities to gain support for work- life balance. Research on work- life balance reveals gender disparities, lack of policy usage, and a lack of cultural change with little understanding of the ways….

Measurement of quality of life has become increasingly relevant as an outcome parameter, especially in long-term trials. Most of the available QoL instruments depend on patient self-reports. The data can be collected by written questionnaires. There are universal questionnaires of QoL — for many diseases and the specific ones — specially created for one disease. This study aimed to identify elements related to "intercultural communicative competence" in the textbook series " Life " at A1 and A2 level published by "National Geographic Learning" which incorporates plentiful photographic content.

Activities in the textbooks, based on the four skills and visuals, were analyzed…. The decrease of rDNA amount was found in the callus cultures as compared with the plants. In contrast to other species, G. The relationship between the peculiarities of rRNA gene structure and their rearrangements in in vitro culture was suggested.

There is no. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life. This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain.

Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as ' life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts.

Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's , Br. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross- culturally , different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding.

Regardless of where schools are located, teachers face the challenge of teaching and mentoring children, not only in academic achievement but in social emotional development. When faced with challenges, young children are especially vulnerable because they lack the life experience and developmental maturity to adequately cope.

Relying on the lead…. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures. Spirulina sp. It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures , under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products proteins, carbohydrates, lipids were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions.

Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight.

In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated. Cultural frames, qualities of life , and the aging self. We used the Self-Concept Enhancement Tactician SCENT model to explore whether older Norwegians and Canadians would tactically self-enhance on qualities considered significant within their cultures in their self-perceptions of aging.

Self-perceptions of aging were measured by the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire. The study is a secondary analysis of data collected in a larger study; older Norwegians and older Canadians were included. The Norwegian and Canadian group self-enhanced their perceptions of psychosocial loss based on harmonious social relationships and being part of a larger social group. For self-perceptions of physical change, both groups self-enhanced on being self-sufficient and being part of a larger social group.

Our findings suggest that Norwegians and Canadians are not highly individualistic people and also provide evidence of a bicultural self-perception of aging. Nurses should consider how cultural and individual perspectives affect the care priorities of older people. Alaska Native AN college students experience higher attrition rates than their non-Native peers. Understanding the factors that contribute to quality of life "what makes life good" for AN students will help inform supportive programs that are congruent with their culture and college life experiences.

Co-develop a conceptual model and a measure of quality of life QOL that reflects the experiences of AN college students. Six focus groups were conducted with 26 AN college students. Within a community-academic partnership, interactive data collection activities, co-analysis workgroup sessions and an interactive findings forum ensured a participant-driven research process.

Students identified and operationally defined eight QOL domains values, culture and traditions, spirituality, relationships, basic needs, health, learning and leisure. The metaphor of a tree visually illustrates how the domains values, culture and traditions and spirituality form the roots to the other domains that appear to branch out as students navigate the dual worldviews of Native and Western ways of living.

The eight QOL domains and their items identified during focus groups were integrated into a visual model and an objective QOL measure. The hope is to provide a useful tool for developing and evaluating university-based programs and services aimed toward promoting a positive QOL and academic success for AN students. The important role for nurses in supporting the Asian Hindu patient and family at end of life : providing culturally sensitive end-of- life care. As cultural ecology of Canada evolves with daily arrival of new immigrants, Canadians welcome them and feel very proud of preserving their multicultural heritage.

As minority groups, especially South Asian Hindus, continue to grow, there is a need to understand their cultural perspectives and accommodate their cultural preferences for end-of- life care. This article addresses end-of- life care from a point of view of Hindu culture and religion and provides a brief overview of their beliefs and rituals related to it.

This article also guides nurses to understand diverse Hindu cultural practices and beliefs to help support their patients and families at this difficult time of life. The effect of values and culture on life -support decisions. Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive.

Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life -and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems.

Speck, Rebecca M. Purpose Women in academic medicine are not achieving the same career advancement as men, and face unique challenges in managing work and family alongside intense work demands. Method As part of a larger intervention trial, the authors collected baseline survey data from women assistant professors at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine in Pearson correlations and general linear mixed modeling were used to analyze the data.

Authors investigated whether work culture moderated the association between work demands and work-to-family conflict. Results Heavy work demands were associated with increased levels of work-to-family conflict. At equivalent levels of work demands, women in more supportive cultures experienced lower levels of work-to-family conflict. This finding leads to important insights about strategies for more effectively supporting the careers of women assistant professors.

However, no AD models have fully validated this hypothesis. We recently developed a human stem cell culture model of AD by cultivating genetically modified human neural stem cells in a three-dimensional 3D cell culture system. In this review, we will discuss the progress and current limitations of AD mouse models and human stem cell models as well as explore the breakthroughs of 3D cell culture systems.

We will also share our perspective on the potential of dish models of neurodegenerative diseases for studying pathogenic cascades and therapeutic drug discovery. These housing types initially reserved for middle to high-income residents. Transformation can describe as changes from one condition to another condition that can happen continuously in time. Change is affected by internal and external factors.

Internal factors include culture , perspective, and social system while external factors include science progress and other cultural influence. This research is a descriptive study which tries to describe the phenomenon that is currently ongoing. The structure and function of human social life are not uniform; meaning in every social life setting each of the structure and function are different. The characteristic of a community will transform in continuity.

Alien To Me? The paper will introduce an original piece of research that is devoted to the socio- cultural aspects of scientifi c search for life in outer space and it draws from doctoral research in anthropology of science. In this piece of research the extraterrestrial life hypothesis is conceptualized as a significant part of the general world-view, constantly shaped by the work and discoveries of science.

The paper presents data from qualitative ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the UK as well as uses quantitative data from public from the USA, UK and other countries. A cross- cultural analysis of posthumous reproduction: The significance of the gender and margins-of- life perspectives. The scholarly discussion of posthumous reproduction PHR focuses on informed consent and the welfare of the future child, for the most part overlooking cultural differences between societies.

Based on a cross- cultural comparison of legal and regulatory documents, analysis of pivotal cases and study of scholarly and media discussions in Israel and Germany, this paper analyses the relevant ethical and policy issues, and questions how cultural differences shape the practice of PHR. The findings challenge the common classifications of PHR by highlighting the gender perspective and adding brain-dead pregnant women to the debate.

Based on this study's findings, four neglected cultural factors affecting social attitudes towards PHR are identified: i the relationship between the pregnant woman and her future child; ii what constitutes the beginning of life ; iii what constitutes dying; and iv the social agent s seeking to have the future child.

The paper argues that PHR can be better understood by adding the gender and margins-of- life perspectives, and that future ethical and practical discussions of this issue could benefit from the criteria emerging from this cross- cultural analysis. Cultural and ethical considerations for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in chinese patients with cancer at the end of life.

End-of- life EOL decision making is based on the values and wishes of terminally ill patients. The reaction itself has been used as a means to remove conjugated com- pounds in separating fatty-acid mixtures and in separating neovitamin A from vitamin A, and to purify benzene of dienes. A solution of 2. The reaction mixture crystallizes completely upon cooling. The product is recrystallized from hot ligroin, giving practically a quantitative yield of aV4-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride.

References Diels, 0. Buu-Hoi and Dat-Xuong, Bull, soc, chim. France , Craig, D. Cope, A. Cosgrove, C. Diels, O. Dufraisse, C. L,, J. Frank, R. Reactions 4, 1 A Review. Kohler, E. R, and Kable, J. Korolev, A. Ohshchei Khim.

Kuhn, R. Norton, J. Paul, R. Robeson, C. Robey, R. Snyder, H. Tyutyunnikov, G. Van Volkenburg, R. Such compounds include, besides 1-vinylnaphthalenc, certain 1-cyclopen- tenylnaphthalenes, several 9-vinylphenanthrenes, p-vinylveratrolcs, and p-vinylisosaf roles Most arylvinyl compounds, such as styrene, however, can form only copolymers. Diarylethylenes add two moles of maleic anhydride to produce 'labile bis-adducts.

See, for example, the reaction of l-phcnyl-l- 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl ethyl- ene. Indene also forms a similar cyclic adduct, but addition takes place in such a manner as to produce l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l,4-methano- naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride. The reaction between l-vinylnaphthalene and fumaric acid is slower than the one with maleic anhydride, but it gives a higher yield of monomeric adducts.

The cis-l,2,3,10a-tetrahydro-l,2-phenanthrenedicarboxylic anhy- dride formed in this reaction with maleic anhydride melts at When evaporatively distilled under reduced pressure, or refluxed with acetic or propionic acid, or treated with acetic anhydride and hydrogen chloride, it is isomerized to the naphthalenic anhydride, cis-l,2,3,4-tet- rahydro-l,2-phenanthrenedicarboxylic anhydride.

This compound melts at These anhydrides may be used to prepare the corresponding pure polycyclic hydrocarbons by dehydrogenation and decarboxyla- tion. Adducts with 1-vinylnaph- thalene have been employed in synthesizing sex hormones. A solution of 8. The yield of crude product is 13 g.

References Bachmann, W. Soc, 60, Arnold, R. Bachmann, W. Soc, 71, Bergmann, E. Bergmann, F. Cohen, A. Szmuszkovicz, J. J,, J. As a general rule, it is only the polynuclear aromatic compounds, for which a com- plete Kekule structure cannot be drawn, that readily condense with this dienophile. Such compounds include anthracene, naphthacene, 1,2-benzanthracene, and the like. Chrysene and 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl- naphthalene are the exceptions.

The methyl groups in the latter com- pound probably so activate the aromatic rings that addition can take place under proper experimental conditions. This led Norton to pre- dict that even benzene and naphthalene might add dienophiles if they could be made unusually reactive, provided of course that they formed sufficiently heat-stable adducts.

See reference to Kloetzel and Her- zog. Benzathrene adds maleic anhydride but rearranges in doing so. Anthracene forms a well-defined crystalline adduct that shows no fluorescence under an arc lamp, such as is observed with anthracene itself. Little study as yet has been given to possible uses for these compounds except for methods of separating polynuclear hydrocarbons.

Treated with alcoholic potassium hydroxide, the anthracene adduct yields the corresponding anthrone derivative. Forty-two g. Crystals of the adduct separate readily during the cooling of the reaction mixture. They are recrystallized, first from o-chlorobenzene and then from xylene.

References Barnett, E. Bachraann, W. Oil Chemists' Soc. Jones, R. Research 26B, The remainder of the products are chain copoly- mers that vary in their ratio of maleic anhydride to terpene. The copolymer of a-phellandrene, for instance, has a molecular weight of and a molar ratio of 6 parts of anhydride to 5 of terpene. Com- pounds of these types are also present in the reaction products of maleic anhydride with a non-conjugated monocyclic terpene if small amounts of acid are present to cause isomerization.

It forms a crystalline acid and ammonium salt. It can be completely distilled under reduced pressure. These crystalline adducts, or the reaction mixtures of them with the copolymers formed simultaneously, may be combined with polyhydric alcohols to produce polyesters.

These polyesters are used in coatings, inks, plasticizers, adhesives, linoleum, and food wrappers. The glycol ester has been employed as a rubber substitute. De- emulsifying agents for petroleum, sudsing and wetting agents, and synthetic tanning agents can be prepared from them. To a solution of 10 g. The shaking causes the liquid to turn yellow.

The solution is filtered, evap- orated, and the residue recrystallized from boiling methanol. References Diels, O. HopHeld, J. A,, and Goldblatt, L. Hultzsch, K. Ipatieff, V. Kienle, R. Littmann, E. Here the acetylene bond is the equivalent of two olefin groups, thus giving rise to a double Diels-Alder addition.

In this respect, these dieneynes are similar to conjugated tetraenes, except that tetraenes do not produce conjugated bicyclic derivatives. That the products contain a conjugated group with the unsaturated bonds in different rings has been shown by comparing their absorption spectra with com- pounds known to contain such structures. The parent aromatic hydro- carbons have been prepared from these adducts by heating them with palladium and charcoal.

Side reactions also occur that would account for the relatively low yields. It has been noted that small amounts of impurities in the reactants markedly affect the results. Heated with ethyl alcohol, it yields the monoethyl ester. The tetraethyl ester melts at Some of these compounds were prepared for studying the metabolism of steroids in animals. The reaction mixture, after cooling, is extracted with ether, and the residue from the ether extract is then recrystallized from ethyl acetate or dioxane.

References Butz, L. Joshel, L. Klebanskii, A. USSR 16, ; C. A similar addition takes place with trichloromethyl radicals when produced by the reaction of carbon tetra- chloride with benzoyl peroxide. See Reaction of Carbon Tetra- chloride. In contrast, chlorotriphenylmethane reacts with silver fumarate to yield only the triphenylmethyl ester, without affecting the unsaturation of the fumarate.

The acid is readily soluble in ether and can be separated from the anhydride by this sol- vent. No commercial use has yet been made of these reactions. To ml. The reaction mixture is refluxed in an atmosphere of nitrogen for several hours. An insoluble salt forms at the interface of the two solutions. This salt and the aqueous solution are then separated, acidified, and extracted with ether.

Whereupon, 60 g. References Conant, J. Such addition polymerization takes place very readily in the preparation of esters with polyhydric alcohols ; it occurs after two or more moles of maleic acid have reacted to form a polymaleate. Air may accelerate such a reaction under cer- tain conditions by producing peroxides.

Ethyl polysuccinate is a soft, colorless resin that is soluble in ethyl alcohol, acetone, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, benzene, toluene, xylene, and aromatic naphthas. It is insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Coating compositions of good color stability and excellent characteristics are obtained from ethyl polysuccinate.

Use is also made of this type of reaction by admixing maleic anhydride in small amounts with other anhydrides in manufacturing several important types of mixed alkyd resins. Glycol polysuccinates give coatings that dry in air when siccatives are added. Esters from dienols have been suggested as drying-oil substitutes. Nitroalkyl esters produce combus- tible plastics and binders for explosives. Unsaturated esters from allyl alcohol and its homolog yield an important group of cast plastics, rub- bers, and fibers.

Emulsion polymers of this type have been recom- mended as plasticizers for synthetic rubber, and the diethylene glycol polyesters as binders for low-pressure molding compounds. A solution of 4 g. The unpoly- merized ethyl fumarate is then removed by distillation, leaving g. References Dykstra, H. Alexander, Editor. Gabriel, A. Marvel, C. Prill, E. Dutch 59, Many of these reactions yield products that are of constant compo- sition and molecular weight irrespective of initial concentrations of reactants.

Some reactions require a solvent, whereas other reactants will unite only in the presence of themselves. The molecular propor- tion of succinyl groups in the product varies with the particular ethyl- ene derivative. Some can be made to react in molecular proportions, such as propylene, isobutylene and diisobutylene.

Others contain only an excess of one or the other of the reactants. In general, maleyl com- pounds show a reaction selectivity that favors the alternating 1: 1-type of copolymer. Polyethylenesuccinic anhydride is a solid that dissolves readily in warm water and hydrolyzes slowly to give the polyacid.

The copolymer is also soluble in alkalies. Polyalkylenesuccinic anhydrides have been used as tanning agents, photographic chemicals, gelatin substitutes, textile agents, petroleum chemicals, protein hardeners, alkyd resin ingredients, and as an intermediate in producing naphthol dyes for color photography. Polyphenylethylenesuccinates may be used for coatings, resins, lacquer, base-exchange resins, and plastics; mixed vinyl copolymers when sul- fonated, as detergents; and methyl methacrylate copolymers, as sol- vents and plasticizers.

Copolymers with vinyl compounds have adhe- sive and other properties that are not readily obtained in other ways, whereas maleinized rubbers not only adhere better to metals but are partially vulcanized during the copolymerization.

A solution containing 30 g. The mixture is carefully held at the higher temperature for one hour before being cooled. The product formed is insoluble in toluene and is thus recovered by filtra- tion. The yield is 35 g. Alfrey, T. Bartlett, P. Soc, 70, Ebers, E. Lewis, F. Rust, J. Starkweather, H.

Tong, L. Wagner- Jauregg, T. Halogens and their compounds offer a wider variety of re- actions. Included in this chapter are reactions involving not only the ethylene bond, but also those embracing the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. In fact, a halogen reaction can be carried out with every atom of the maleyl group.

The addition of halogens, themselves, is an interesting study of the effect of reaction conditions upon the yield of different optical isomers. Dichlorosuccinic acids, like tartaric acids, are often cited as a classical example of optical activity. Addition of a dehydrohalogenating agent in the reaction with chlorine produces chloromaleic acid, which acts in many syntheses as if it were acetylenedicarboxylic acid as a result of the ease with which it splits off hydrogen chloride during many of its reactions.

Considerable difficulty is encountered in effecting the addition of halo acids. Hydrogen chloride, for example, can be caused to react only in excess in an anhydrous solution, whereas very poor yields are reported for the reaction of hydrogen bromide by various methods.

This product readily splits off hydrogen chloride, especially in alkaline solution, to give the interesting dicarboxyethylene oxide, epoxysuccinic acid. The reaction with mixed alkyl chlorides through a splitting off of 28 hydrogen chloride gives the alkenylsuccinic acids. This affords a con- venient means of adding olefinic groups to the ethylene bond of maleic anhydride by starting with saturated hydrocarbons.

Compounds such as 2-bromo-l,l-diphenylethylene probably first undergo a multiple Diels-Alder reaction, but the product not only loses hydrogen bromide and some maleic anhydride but also undergoes auto- dehydrogenation upon sublimation during the purification. No evidence has as yet been obtained that acid chlorides are capable of adding to the ethylene bond of maleyl compounds.

With maleic and fumaric acids, fumaryl chloride is the product formed. With maleamic acid, imides and amides are produced. When maleic acid is treated with phosphorus pentachloride and the reaction mixture is immediately distilled under reduced pressure, a product isomeric with the unknown maleyl chloride has been reported. This compound is a lactone having the ring structure of maleic anhydride where two chloro groups replace an oxygen of one of the carbonyls. The catalyst apparently reacts with the carbon tetrachloride to produce trichloromethyl free radicals, which, like triphenylmethyl, add to both carbons of the ethylene bond of the maleate.

As is pointed out in the discussion of that reaction, dioxane forms, in contrast, the dioxanylsuccinate. The product formed in this preparation is reported to be exclusively the meso-acid produced by what is known as a trans-addition. The racemic a,yS-dichlorosuccinic acid has been made in a similar manner from maleic acid. A cis- addition occurs when chlorine is added to aqueous solutions of the soluble neutral salts in the presence of an excess of chloride ions.

Bromine, in contradistinction, yields mixtures of the isomers under all conditions. The meso-acid is the predominant product when this halogen is added to aqueous solutions of the neutral salts of cither maleic or fumaric acid. The racemic acid is usually prepared by carry- ing out the reaction in anhydrous ether.

The acid is soluble in water, alcohol, ether, acetone, and chloroform, but only slightly soluble in benzene and ligroin. The alkyl esters of dichlorosuccinic acids are valuable fungicides. A mixture of 10 g. The flask is then placed in a cooling bath of solid carbon dioxide and ether, and an excess of chlorine is passed through the reaction mixture, being fed in a strong stream into the flask at or below the level of the cooling fluid.

Practically all the chlorine condenses to a liquid within the flask. The reaction mixture is then exposed to bright sunlight for 4 days, while being agitated vigorously. The excess of chlorine is blown out of the flask after the contents have been cooled in an ice- salt mixture, and the mushy product is transferred to a filter and sucked free of liquid. What remains in the filtrate is then extracted with ether, and the combined recovery of dichlorosuccinic acid is recrystallized from water.

The total yield in this way is practically quantitative. References Kirchhoff, H.. Ann, , Cf,: Frankland, E. Chem, Soc. Farbenindustrie, A-G. Robinson, H. Ruhemann, S. Terry, E. M,, and Eichelberger, L. Soc,, 47, Wenner, W.

It has no effect on the rate of chlorination. Benzoic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, or benzoyl peroxide may be used also for the same purpose. The dialkyl esters of this anhydride copolymerize with 1,3- butadiene to give valuable synthetic rubbers. Chloromaleic anhydride is itself also a valuable reagent in many organic syntheses.

With conjugated drying oils, it gives infusible sol- uble resins. With substituted propenylbenzenes, this anhydride yields a substituted dihydronaphthalenedicarboxylic anhydride. With con- jugated dienes, and cyclic hydrocarbons such as anthracene, it gives chlorinated Diels-Alder type of adducts. In the presence of sodium alkoxides, however, chloromaleic esters condense with keto esters, malonates, and substituted phenols to yield derivatives of maleic acid by splitting off sodium chloride without affecting the unsaturation.

Thus diethyl chlorofumarate and ethyl acetoacetate form triethyl acetoaconitate. This product reacts with concentrated ammonia to give l,2,3,4-tetrahydrohydroxymethyloxocinchoraeric acid. Halomaleic esters react with ammonia to form aminomaleimides, halomaleamic acids, and aminomaleamides. Aniline yields halomalea- nilic acids, a-anilino-N-phenylmaleimide, and a-anilinofumaramides. Phenylhydrazine gives phenylhydrazonosuccinamide. Cements and adhesives may be had from condensation of the acid with glycerol or polyamines.

A mixture of g. An excellent yield of chloromaleic anhy- dride is obtained in this manner. The anhydride may also be prepared under similar conditions with- out the use of barium chloride. In this case, nearly 24 hours is required instead of 8 for the gain in weight to equal that calculated for the necessary conversion to the monochloromaleic anhydride. References Wise, P. Claus, A. Mast, W. Putnam, S. Synerholm, M. Thomas-Mamert, R.

Fittig claimed to have obtained complete conversion under these conditions, but Dunn and Fox report poor yields, not only for this but also for other methods. When recrystallized from water or acetic acid, chlorosuccinic acid melts at It is very soluble in water and hot acetic acid.

It is only slightly soluble in cold acetic acid, however, and very slightly soluble in chloroform. Halosuccinic acids are convenient starting substances for syn- thesizing a number of compounds. They are used, for instance, in the preparation of mercaptosuccinic acid, which is employed for making the medicinal, aurothiomalic acid. Ethylmercaptosuccinic acid can be prepared in a similar manner. The halogen group of the halosuccinic acid can also be readily replaced by an xantho group or by an iodo group.

Ethyl iodosuccinate reacts with benzophene and zinc to give ethyl y,y-diphenylparaconate. Halosuccinic acids also readily undergo condensation in the presence of sodium ethoxide. Ethyl 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate reacts with diethyl bromosuccinate, for example, to produce l-carboxyoxo-l- cyclopentylsuccinic acid. An excess of a saturated solution of hydrogen chloride in acetic acid is added and the mixture is heated on a water bath for 12 to 14 hours, with constant agitation.

Part of the chloro- succinic acid that is formed separates when the solution is cooled. This is removed, and the mother liquor is then evaporated under re- duced pressure to incipient crystallization in order to recover the - remainder of the product.

The acid may also be prepared from malic acid. References Anschiitz, R. Dunn, M. Fittig, R. Freudenberg, K. Grove, J. Applied Biol. Holmberg, B. Levene, P. Lutz, O. Moflatt, J. Walden, P. This acid can be readily resolved into its optical isomers. A mixture of equal quantities of the optically active acids has the same melting point as the racemic acid.

No success has been had in resolving it into its active isomers. Little study has been given to the reactions of this acid. It should be an interesting reagent, since it contains the ethylene oxide grouping. A solution containing 80 g. To this is added a solution of 63 g.

The flask then is sealed with a rubber stopper and permitted to stand for 22 hours. A glass stopper should be avoided. The reac- tion mixture is then treated with 60 g. This causes g. Twenty grams of sodium hydroxide is then added to the mother liquor, and an additional 45 g. The combined product is then decomposed with sulfuric acid in the usual manner. An ether extraction of the mother liquor yields only small amounts of impure cis-a, 8-epoxysuccinic acid. Reference Kuhn, R. It should be possible to resolve both of these acids into optical isomers, yielding a total of four optically active acids.

Other halomalic acids can be prepared in a similar manner. The C 2 s-acid melts at These acids are valuable starting materials for the synthesis of several compounds. A suspension of g. The chlorine bottle is closed quickly with a stopper carrying a rubber tube, which is dipped into the remainder of the maleate solution. Chlorine is rapidly absorbed when the bottle is shaken, causing the rest of the maleate solution to be drawn into the bottle. The reaction mixture is allowed to stand overnight, when it is neutralized by adding one-half the amount of sodium hydroxide originally required for neutralization of the acid.

Two and one-half equivalents of barium chloride are added next, and the whole is shaken for half an hour. After standing, the easily filtered precipitate is removed. It is washed with water, air-dried, and crushed. After separating the ether layer, the aqueous one is extracted five times with fresh portions of ether.

The combined extracts are allowed to evaporate after washing with a few drops of water. Chlororaalic acid is thus obtained as an oil, but it quickly solidifies to a solid crystalline mass. References Dakin, H. Lessen, W. Timmermans, J. The decyl chloride employed here is a mixture of similar chlorides, since it is prepared from a petroleum distillate. Even very narrow fractions of petroleum products consist of a mixture of isomeric hydrocarbons. The use of such chlorides causes no diflS- culty when the product is to be used for purposes such as those suggested below.

For most industrial uses, the extra cost of starting with a pure chloride would not be warranted. For the same reason, no attempt is made to isolate and characterize the individual isomeric decenylsuccinic acids of which the product is undoubtedly composed.

Often such mixtures of similar compounds have characteristics superior to those of their individual constituents for many practical uses. There is no reason to believe, however, that this method could not be employed to produce a pure decenylsuccinic acid, if the starting chloride were an individual compound. Almost any alkyl chloride or mixture of them may be used in this preparation. It is also well to use underchlorinated hydrocarbons, even if it requires steam distillation to remove the unchlorinated material.

The product obtained in this preparation is a dark gummy mass. Neutral salt solutions of any desired concentration can be obtained by titrating a suspension of it with a solution of alkali. These salt solutions have wetting, emulsifying, and washing properties if the alkenyl groups contain five to twelve carbons. Thirty-five and three-tenths grams of decyl chloride prepared by chlorinating a suitable petroleum fraction is refluxed with 20 g.

A light oily layer separates and is removed. These acids are re- moved by filtration, and both the product and the aqueous layer are then extracted with chloroform. Reference Kyrides, L. The above formula is representative of the mixture.

Note, This single isomer is used purely to illustrate the general type of reaction. Similar reactions occur with each of the other isomers. In many of the reactions studied, the hydrogen halide is split off during the preparation, giving adducts that are more unsaturated than those obtained with the corresponding hydrocarbons, as is the case in this instance. The particular reaction shown on the opposite page, however, undoubtedly may take place in two stages, with the hydrogen bromide being evolved and autooxidation occurring during the sublimation of the reaction product.

The initial amorphous material contains bromine and probably two moles of maleic anhydride, as there is no reason to believe that diarylvinyl halides would react differently from diarylvinyl compounds in general. See, for example, the reaction of l-phenyl-l- 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl ethylene with maleic anhydride. The former adds both one and two moles of maleic anhydride.

The highly reactive hexachloropentadiene adds maleic anhydride without loss of halogen. Derivatives of hexachlorocyclopentadiene, in which the allylic chlorine atoms are replaced by alkoxy groups, react similarly. This reactivity is attributed to their cis-butenoid configuration. Octachloro- 5-ethylidenecyclopentadiene and its isomers do not react with maleic anhy- dride under ordinary conditions.

Chloromaleic anhydride when used as a dienophile yields derivatives of maleic anhydride through the loss of hydrogen chloride. These reactions are a convenient means for producing certain sub- stituted cyclic carboxylic acids and their decarboxylated products. A dark brown reaction mass is obtained when a mixture of 1 g. This dark brown, product is broken up by dissolving it in alcohol and precipitating with water.

The sublimate is finally purified by triturating it with ethanol, followed by crystallization from ligroin. The yield is mg. References Bergmann, F. Favorskaya, T. Favorskil, A. Fieser, L. Farbenindustrie, Monthly Repts. PB, frame USSR 17, ; Chem. Koebner, A. Soc, , Newcomer, J. PriU, E. The maleani- lidium dichlorophosphate when treated with cold water is almost quan- titatively hydrolyzed to maleanilide, phosphoric acid, and hydrochloric acid. If addition had occurred at the unsaturated bond, hydrolysis should have produced the anilide of malic acid.

Instead the only other compound found to be formed by reaction with phosphoryl chloride is a small amount of a-chloro-N-phenylsuccimide m. This is undoubtedly produced by the hydrogen chloride splitting off during the reaction. Maleanilidium dichlorophosphate is very unstable. The maleanilide formed upon hydrolysis varies in melting point, depending upon the conditions under which the melting point is determined, since at the fusion temperature it is converted in part to the isomeric fumaranilide.

When heated with hydrochloric acid it produces N-phenylmaleimide m. A mixture of 19 g. The reaction mixture is then cooled and is diluted with carbon disulfide, whereupon yellow needles of the product are deposited. These are separated, washed with ether, and then dried over concentrated sulfuric acid. References van Dorp, W. Reac- tion of Phosphoryl Chloride. Here a-chloro-N-phenylsuccinimide is the usual product of the reaction. At elevated temperatures even the hydrogen chloride that is evolved during the reaction fails to add to the ethylene group.

See N-Phenylmaleimide Preparation. Under such conditions, the acetyl chloride acts only as a dehydrating agent leading to ring closure. Its structure suggests that it should be an interesting reactant for chemical synthesis. The reaction mixture is then cooled and diluted with benzene or ligroin, which causes the a-chloro-N-phenyl-succinimide to precipitate as fine needles.

These are recovered and dried in the usual manner. Referenceg von Auwers, K. However, none of these methods has given as good yields as either the one described here or the reaction of phthalyl chloride with maleic anhydride in the presence of zinc chloride. When maleic acid is allowed to react with phthalyl chloride, large amounts of maleic anhydride are formed that do not react with the acid chloride except in the presence of a catalyst. In consequence, only very poor yields of fumaryl chloride are obtained.

This compound isomerizes slowly to fumaryl chloride. A mixture of 48 g. At this point the fumaric acid begins to dissolve slowly in the acid chloride with a copious evolution of fumes of hydrogen chloride. The reaction mixture is then fractionally distilled at ordinary pressures. The amount of fumaryl chloride formed is practically equivalent to the amount of fumaric acid in the original mixture.

Only a very small amount of maleic anhydride is formed as the other product of fumaric acid. Kyrides, L. Meyer, H. Michael, A. Mousseron, M. Perkin, W. Piutti, A. Vanino, L. When the product is distilled at 24 mm. This mixture is very difficult to separate. The lactone has not been prepared from maleic anhydride nor from maleic acid with other acid chlorides.

The usual method for preparing chlorides of a similar structure is to heat the symmetrical acid chlorides with aluminum chloride. When fumaryl chloride, however, is treated with aluminum chloride, only very small amounts of the asymmetric chloride are obtained. The major products of the reaction are carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride. These asymmetric chlorides markedly differ from the symmetrical acid chlorides in their slower rate of reaction, the type of products formed, their effect upon hydrogen catalysts, the color of metal com- plexes with aluminum chloride, and their dimorphism.

The last prop- erty is characteristic of lactones in general. It may be used for preparing y-hydroxy-y,y-diphenylcrotonic acid by allowing it to react with benzene in the presence of aluminum chloride. A mixture of Claisen distilling flask in a hood and the flask is connected to a highly efficient pump. The products are then distilled from the reaction mixture, not allowing the pressure to exceed 11 mm. The product is redistilled at a pressure of approximately 2 mm.

Ott, E. Vandevelde, J. Clasae Sci. Chloroben- zene and hexachloroethane are also found in the volatile portion of the products. This reaction is similar in several respects to that of hexaphenylethane page 23 and to that of maleates with benzoyl peroxides in the absence of a solvent page Should conditions be found for increasing the yields, this method would offer a most convenient procedure for adding various groups derived from solvents to the ethylene bond of maleic compounds.

Dimethyl dioxanylsuccinate, for example, has been identified as one of the products of the reaction of dimethyl maleate with benzoyl peroxide in dioxane. The acid melts at to A solution of g. The residue obtained upon removal of the solvent is ex- tracted with ether. The extract is washed with a sodium bicarbonate solution, dried, and then fractionally distilled with the aid of reduced pressure. This yields a total of 87 g. References Marvel, C. S3 CHAPTER 5 Hydrogen The size of this chapter should in no manner detract from its im- portance, since the single example given is a typical one for a large number of compounds containing the unsaturated malcyl group.

This reaction with hydrogen is another example of the ease with which many different reagents add to the carbon-carbon double bond of raaleyl compounds. In this instance, the reaction may be carried out under a variety of different conditions with excellent yields.

Even a mild reducing agent, such as zinc and sulfuric acid, may be employed as the source for the hydrogen. In most cases, these reductions apparently involve only the simple addition of hydrogen atoms to the carbons of the ethylenic double bond of the maleyl compound.

However, this cannot be true for all such reactions, as indicated by the studies of Ott, and of Lutz and co-workers. It is possible, as postulated by Conant and Lutz, that during the reduction of maleates to succinates under certain conditions, hydrogen first adds to the carbonyls of the conjugated maleyl grouping to give a dienol that isomerizes irreversibly by a shift of hydrogens to the stable keto form of succinic acid, viz.

It can take place as a 1,2-, as a 1,4- or, as shown, as a 1,6-addition similar to that of Grignard reagents described in Chapter 4. For example, such type of addition would 54 readily account for the apparent oxidation-reduction potential observed in the hydrogenation of fumaric acid, for the varying proportions of isomers obtained in hydrogenating sodium dimethylmaleate under dif- ferent conditions, and for the dimeric and cyclic compounds obtained from diaroylethylenes under certain conditions.

Both succinic acid and its anhydride are produced commercially in this country by the hydrogenation of maleic anhydride. Many impor- tant chemicals can be prepared from them, as can be seen on the following page. Probably the most interesting reactions of succinic acid are those involving its methylene groups.

The ease with which the hydrogens may be replaced from these two groups may be due to their juxta- position to its carbonyl groups. Esters of succinic acid, for example, are unusual in their strong tendency to undergo aldol condensation with ketones to produce itaconic acids, methylenesuccinic acids. This reaction is known as the Stobbe condensation.

The failure of diethyl malonate to condense in a similar manner, even though it contains a more reactive methylene group, would indicate that this type of reaction involves more than the reactivity of the methylene groups alone. Paraconic acids are possibly first formed as intermediates in the production of itaconic acids. They are the usual products of reaction with aldehydes.

The recent preparation of several methylbenz [a] anthracenes for physiological studies is a typical example of how reactions of succinic acid can be employed in a series of syntheses leading to products of a particular interest. The anhydride melts at The acid is soluble in water and alcohol, only slightly soluble in ether, and practically insoluble in benzene and chloroform.

Succinic acid is the starting material for the synthesis of a large number of very useful substances. Its esters have been employed as plasticizers for adhesives, vinyl plastics, rubber, and lacquers; as ingredients in bitumen products; as additives in lubricating and cut- ting oils; as perfumes; as water-repellent agents; and as aids in the dyeing of vinyl yarns. The succinyl peroxide and N-chlorosuccinimide derivatives are powerful germicides.

The succinyl peroxide has been suggested for the bleaching of food products; and the N-chlorosuccinim- ide is used in the purification of drinking water. N-Bromosuccin- imide is employed as a brominating agent, particularly where it is desired to introduce bromine into unsaturated compounds without affecting the double bond. See Djerassi. Several oil-soluble dyes, alkyd resins, ester-type elastomers, sulfa-drugs, arsenicals, other phar- maceuticals, synthetic musks, detergents, and wetting agents also depend upon succinic acid for their manufacture.

Succinic acid may be used as a reagent in photographic processes and in chemical analysis. A wide variety of other chemicals can also be prepared starting with this acid. They include, for example, succinosuccinic esters; acetonediacetic anhydride; aroylpropionic acids; substituted itaconic acids; paraconic acids; fulgides; 4- p-methoxyphenyl butenoic acids ; l,8-diphenyl-l,3,5,7-octatetraene ; 3,3'-dicoumarin ; pyrocin- chonic anhydride; ethyl formylsuccinate; levulinic acid; 3-acetyl -2 ,5- dimethylfuran ; 2- alky Imercapto thiophenes ; a,j3-dichloromaleimide ; 5-hydroxymethylcinchomeronic acid ; N-p-phenetylsuccinimide ; 2-alkylbutadienes ; 8,9,1 1-trimethylbenz [a] anthracene ; methyl 2,5- dioxo-l-pyrrolidene acetate; and equilein.

A solution containing 25 g. To this is added 58 g. Hydrogenation is then carried out with proper precautions at lb. Upon completion, the catalyst is removed by filtration, the filtrate acidified and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The product is purified by extraction with absolute alcohol and recrystallization from water.

The above reaction may be carried out at ordinary temperatures, if a palladium catalyst is used. Reduction with zinc and sulfuric acid is also practical. References Allen, B. Carri6re, E. Ciamician, G. Cook, J. Curtius, T. Chem, , Djerassi, C. Johnson, W. Kharasch, M. Acta 11, Linstead, R.

Magnanini, G. McQuiUin, F. Morgan, G. Neuberg, C. Formulary Comm. Robinson, R. Shaefer, W. Steinkopf, W. Stobbe H. Werbin, H. Wojcik, B. Brit , Indian 31, The first group of reactions includes those of maleic anhydride with mercuric acetate and with hexaphenyldilead. Both these reactants yield a,jS-disubstituted succinic acids. The latter reactant, like hexaphenylethane, appar- ently dissociates into free radicals during the reaction. The second, by far the most important of the three groups of reac- tions, involves the use of such auxiliary substances as sodium alkoxides and anhydrous aluminum chloride, which are known in some cases to form definite metallo complexes with one of the reactants.

Hence they have been included in this chapter rather than treated separately elsewhere. The reactions with sodium alkoxides are a very convenient means of causing a variety of substances to add to the ethylene bond of maleic derivatives. Examples given include the addition of alcohols, 58 j8-keto esters, malonates, and nitriles.

Such reactions with kcto esters are known as Claisen syntheses, while those with malonates and nitriles are known as Michael syntheses. Some of these reactions can also be carried out in the presence of strongly alkaline catalysts other than sodium alkoxides, but the usual procedure is to add either metallic sodium to the reactant in the presence of an alcohol or a sodium alkoxide, before incorporating the maleyl compound in the reaction mixture as shown in the preparations selected.

Reactions with nitro- paraffins and with potassium cyanide are included under nitrogen compounds, since they may be carried out under somewhat different conditions from those generally employed here. The third group is limited to the Grignard reactions.

Seven examples illustrating the different end products that may be obtained from the Grignard synthesis are given. In a like manner, two moles of a Grignard reagent may produce either y-hydroxycrotonic acid as a result of a 1,,2-addition, a y-ketopropionic acid from a 1,,4-addition, or a diketoalkene from a 1,,6-addition. An even greater number of compounds are theo- retically possible when larger amounts of Grignard reactant are em- ployed, as illustrated in some of the other examples given.

There is also some evidence that a l,6-additi6n may occur to a limited extent under certain conditions. Fumaric acid under identical conditions reacts by metathesis to yield only mer- curic fumarate. Mercuric yS-acetoxymercurimalate is a colorless solid that is insoluble in both water and alcohol.

It dissolves in most of the acids but not in dilute acetic acid. It also dissolves in alkaline solutions but with the complete destruction of the addition compound, whereas a sodium chloride solution yields a mixture of disodium yS-chloromercurimalate, sodium acetate, and mercuric chloride.

The latter solution is strongly acidic. Potassium iodide solutions, like those of alkalies, destroy the complex malate. A solution containing 5 g. A small amount of a yellow precipitate is formed, which is removed after adding acetic acid. The filtrate is diluted with water and heated upon a water bath. To this is added 4 g.

Further heating produces a white, microcrystalline precipitate that increases in amount when the reaction mixture is allowed to cool. This precipitate is collected and thoroughly washed with very dilute acetic acid, then with pure water, followed by alcohol, and then ether. It is then air-dried. The initial washing must be carried out with acidulated water, since pure water causes a material to precipitate from the mother liquor that contaminates the product.

The yield is 7. Reference Biilmann, E. Leeper reports that it also occurs when a chloroform solution of the two reactants is allowed to stand for 5 months. It is insoluble in acetone, dioxane, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and petroleum ether. It is only slightly soluble in boil- ing water but dissolves in glacial acetic acid. This salt can be obtained from triphenyllead hydroxide and maleic anhydride. Reference Leeper, R. The procedure given is a general one.

It can be used with both branched- and straight-chain monohydric alco- hols. To avoid the formation of a mixture of products, it is common practice to use the maleic esters and alcoholates derived from the same alcohol. Little, if any, fumaric acid is formed during these prepara- tions. The acid is obtained, as shown, through saponification of the alkoxysuccinate. The long- chain alkoxy derivatives, such as decyloxy- and dodecyloxysuccinic acids, have been used as intermediates in the prep- aration of synthetic detergents.

To a methoxide solution, prepared by dissolving 3 g. The solution becomes colored, and part of the product precipitates. The reaction mixture is then refluxed, whereupon more precipitate is formed as a result of some saponification of the methoxysuccinic ester. After refluxing, the solvent is removed by distillation, and the residue heated with a slight excess of a potas- sium hydroxide solution.

The alkaline solution is then neutralized with hydrochloric acid, calcium chloride is added, and the solution is boiled. Crystalline calcium methoxysuccinate is precipitated. This is carefully decomposed with a little less than the calculated amount of sulfuric acid, and the mixture is extracted with alcohol.

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